Credits Exhibit Production Museu de Angra do Heroísmo, 2022 Coordination Jorge A. Paulus Bruno Museological and museographic project João Pedro Dias Lemos Texts and items selection João Pedro Dias Lemos Inventory Beatriz Pintado, Magda Peres, Margarida Azevedo and Vítor do Castelo Texts revision Ana Lúcia Almeida Translation Emília Moniz Conservation and Restoration Márcia Lima and Sílvia Luís Design and graphic production Maryori García Ramírez / Accional Assembly Eleutério Pimentel, Fábio Almeida (coordination), José Silva, Magda Peres, Manuela Rocha, Olga Rocha, Roberto Medeiros, Rui Toste and Sara Toste Electricity Carlos Silveira and João Aguiar Activities organization Ana Lúcia Almeida, Carolina Dores, Catarina Valadão, Débora Guilherme and Vanessa Pimentel Items lending António Mendes and Domingos Cabral Collaboration Associação de Radioamadores da Praia da Vitória, Associação de Radioamadores dos Açores, Azores DX Group, Francisco Rosa, Manuel Martins, Museu Carlos Machado, Museu da Horta, Paula Ramos e União de Radioamadores dos Açores Special collaboration António Mendes and Domingos Cabral This exhibit, which we named Communications in Terceira Island - the Amateur Radio and the Cold War, and made with the greatest commitment and enthusiasm, represents an homage from Museu de Angra do Heroísmo to all the professionals and amateurs who are dedicated to the radio communications, with a special reference to Victor Ramos and João Porto, due to their professional conduct and dedication to this activity during their lives. This exhibit´s approach to the radio communications devices universe presents a consistent reading about this mode of communication, which stood out and accompanied the technological developments throughout the 20th century, made possible by the richness and the diversity of this Museum´s heritage in this area and by the inestimable collaboration provided by individuals and by several associations. It is only fair to mention, right from the beginning, that this collection, integrated in the Science and Technology Management Unit of the Museu de Angra do Heroísmo, comes from two important donations made to this Museum in the last few years: one from Victor Jorge Pamplona Ramos (1937) and the other from the heirs of João Fernando Goulart Bettencourt Pereira Porto (1928-2012). Any of these donations brought to this Museum a substantial quantity of devices and components of the highest importance and relevance, especially because they are not used currently and, consequently, they witness an era from the past. Having this vast set of items as a ground, it was possible to make a representative selection of the radio communications development, with prominence to the amateur radio and to a determined aspect of the communications occurred in Terceira Island in the Cold War context. To the donors, we register here, and this way as well, a recognized gratitude for the trust in Museu de Angra do Heroísmo as the guardian of the historical memory that these devices contain. Jorge A. Paulus Bruno Director of the Museu de Angra do Heroísmo RADIOCOMMUNICATIONS Origins And Its Societal Impact One of the first consequences in a disaster situation is always the lack of communication. This is when amateur radio operator steps in, as he does not depend on the internet or telephone. Noel Lavoratti - PY5BT - Amateur Radio Operator - Liga de Amadores Brasileiros de Rádio Emissão (Brazilian Amateur Radio Emission League) - Paraná - Brazil Radio communications began in the transition from the 19th to the 20th century. In the late 1980s, German physicist Heinrich Hertz created a system that, through the use of devices enabling the propagation of electromagnetic waves and the subsequent development of radar, succeeded in sending and receiving radio waves. This communication system would become vital in civil society from the 20th century onwards. Ranging from aviation, boating, aerospace travel, civil protection and, obviously, in war contexts, as was the case during World War II (1939-1945), when Motorola produced radios that enabled longer-range communica- tions�. They represented a great technological evolution when compared to telegraphy. Howev- er, the use of communication systems such as Morse Code continued alongside radio sets�. A key element in the spread of radio communications was the thermionic valve. It was invented by Sir John Ambrose Fleming, an English engineer, in 1904. This instrument was characterised by the cold metal surface through which, through a heat-conducting element, an electric current was applied. In 1927, the Philips B443�, the first vacuum pentode valve appeared, which allowed this communication system greater power and amplification. Around 1939, Philips and Mullard produced the EF50 valve, which was used in the English radars and became crucial to the Allied victory in World War II⁴. In 1895, following Heinrich Hertz's successful experiments, the Italian inventor Gugliel- mo Marconi was the first to successfully broadcast signals in a wireless network over a distance of 1.5 miles (about 2.4 kilometres). The developments that followed these discoveries in radio communications were increasingly rapid, global and, above all, useful and effective for the populations. In 1901, Mar- coni established the first transatlantic communication, and, the following year, the first telegraphic message between England and Canada. Amateur Radio Beginning, Expansion and Public Use Amateur radio, which is characterised by a passion for establishing communications through radio devices, without any profit motive, and, in some cases, to investigate and learn about their electronics, arose as a result of the evolution of radio communications and all the devices and functions inherent to it⁵. Common interferences and irregularities in communications, derived from amateur radio's enormous expansion, forced the United States Government to regulate this activity in 1912. A licence became required to operate an amateur radio, each operator would have their own callsign, made up of letters and numbers, which was attributed according to their place of activity. It could be obtained once the candidate proved their competence. Radio amateurs also became holders of QSL (I confirm receipt of your transmission) cards. These provided writ- ten confirmation of a communication between two radio stations⁶. Amateur Radio in Portugal During the first decades of the 20th century, radio communications achieved exponen- tial growth in the Portuguese territory. Alberto Carlos de d'Oliveira, a naval radio operator, is considered the first Portuguese radio amateur. He was first documented establishing commu- nications between the British South Atlantic Fleet and the Admiralty in London, in 1916, during World War I (1914-1918). Commercial broadcasting was another integral aspect in amateur radio. Abílio Nunes dos Santos Júnior (1892-1970), a pioneer of telephony in Portugal, also stood out in Estação Rádio de Lisboa⁷. New associations, clubs and institutions appeared. Their transmissions ranged in pro- grammes and activities. News, theatre, concerts, children's sessions and many other types of broadcasts have become part of everyday´s life for the Portuguese and radio sets have become one of the most cherished family items. Through radio transmissions, the Portuguese popula- tion got to know personalities such as Artur Agostinho (journalist/actor), João Villaret (theatre) and Odette de Saint-Maurice (literature)⁸. Later, radio communications and amateur radio also became associated with another area of enormous importance for citizens: Proteção Civil, a national safety agency, which includes firefighters, paramedics, disaster response, among other operations. During Estado Novo (1933-1974), this assistance was not explicit, but after April 25th, 1974 revolution, radio operators developed an increasingly frequent intervention and became an alternative to the communications of Autoridade Nacional de Emergência e Proteção Civil (National Emergency and Civil Protection Authority), as stated in 2021's Plano de Emergência e Proteção Civil (Emer- gency and Civil Protection Plan)⁹. Amateur Radio Callsign Prefixes�� �� Region Category A Category B Category C Portugal CT1 and CT4 CT1, 2 and 4 CT5 mainland Legislation Regions and Azores before categories Autonomous CU1 and CU9 CU1 and CU9 CU0 DL no. distinction Region 53/2009 Madeira Autonomous CT3 CT3 CT3 Region Region Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 Portugal CT7 CS7 CR7 mainland Categories and regions Azores DL no. distinction, Autonomous CT8 CS8 CR8 53/2009 with more Region focus in the categories Madeira Autonomous CT9 CS9 CR9 Region Amateur radio operators who received a license before the implemen- tation of DL no. 53/2009 maintained the previously attributed callsigns, as well as the categories A, B and C, making it a total of six categories. Categories characteristics�� �� Radio operators - Categories Frequencies Further information Can operate in most of the They can also use higher 1 frequencies power radio sets They are only allowed to They can operate in most of operate at very low power the frequencies in which 2 compared to those of cate categories 1, A and B oper gories 1, A and B radio oper ate ators May receive communications You can apply for category 2, on individual stations and after two years in category 3 and may transmit and receive on if you are over 16 years of age 3 shared use stations under the If, after five years, the radio opera supervision of a category 1, A tor remains in category 3, the or B radio operator licence expires Can operate on the same Can operate on the same A frequencies as category 1 power as category 1 radio radio operators operators They can use, on most They can operate in most of frequencies, only half the B the frequencies in which power used by category 1 category 1 operates radio operators In the few frequencies in Can just operate in a few which they can operate, they C frequencies are only authorised to a very low power usage Amateur radio in Azores and in Terceira Island Amateur radio in Azores began in the city of Horta, in Faial Island. In 1939, there were already 20 radio stations. This activity spread due to Marshall Killen, who, in 1926, joined the staff of Western Union, one of six companies stationed in Horta responsible for the communications between Europe and other locations, using a submarine cable. At this time of the Portuguese history the Azores, given their geographical location, were crucial in establishing and guaranteeing inter- national communications��. In 1976, Associação de Radioamadores dos Açores was founded in São Miguel Island. The radio structures and equipment developed led to a greater spread of amateur radio in Azores, which consequently led to the foundation of new associations and groups��. Amateur Radio Associations and Groups in Azores Island Association/Group Callsign and foundation date União de Radioamadores CU3URA – May 28th, 1986 dos Açores Terceira Azores DX Group CU3DX – October 8th, 1991 Associação de Radiomadores CS4AR – June 12th, 2013 da Praia da Vitória URA, the Azores DX Group and ARPV organise and participate in numerous communica- tions events. They also provide technical and logistical support to local and regional entities. Associação de Radioamadores CU2ARA – São Miguel dos Açores September 16th, 1976 Clube de Radioamadores Faial CU7CRA - 1991 dos Açores Grupo de Radioamadores Pico CU6GRP do Pico Associação de Radioamadores Graciosa CU4ARG da Graciosa Flores Associação de Radioamadores CU8ARF das Flores Santa Maria Associação de Radioamadores CU1ARM Marienses Some amateur radio operators communicate with different countries, in order to increase the list of regions and of the respective amateur radio operators, with which communications can been exchanged, which are later confirmed by exchanging QSL cards. Those communications, especially in the decades before the internet era, allowed many amateur radio operators a deeper understanding of the realities of other international regions and their populations. For the more inquisitive, it also allowed them to learn about electrical engineering and physics��. VICTOR JORGE PAMPLONA RAMOS Amateur radio in Terceira Island�� August 4th, 1937 - Victor Jorge Pamplona Ramos, son of Alexandre Martins Pamplona Ramos Júnior and Maria Nobre Pamplona Ramos, was born in Nisa, at Largo Serpa Pinto; 1960 - Taking into account his knowledge and aptitude to operate communications devices, he began working as a Telecommunications Technician for the American military forces stationed in Azores, namely in Terceira Island, at Lajes Air Base; Circa January 1st, 1980 - During the January 1st, 1980 earthquake, he collected equipment that allowed communications between the island and the outside to be resumed, installing a communications center in Angra do Heroísmo's Police station, where he operated it for 76 con- secutive hours; After 1980 - He was responsible for the design and installation of Proteção Civil's telecommu- nications system in Azores. In the last years of his professional career, he planned, with the sup- port of the Pentagon, the installation of the new system of shared lines, which linked up with the already existing decoding system, called DES (Data Encryption Standard); 1996 – He retired after 36 years of service; 2022 - He currently lives in Terceira Island, in São Carlos village. JOÃO FERNANDO GOULART BETTENCOURT PEREIRA PORTO Cold War Communications�� February 10th, 1928 - João Fernando Goulart Bettencourt Pereira Porto, son of José Pereira Porto and Maria da Ascenção Goulart Bettencourt Pereira Porto, was born in Azores, in São Jorge Island; February 22nd, 1946 - He joined the United States Air Force's Communications Service. He worked with the 1936th Communications Squadron, which was located in the Cinco Picos Transmission Station, in Terceira Island. He was the first Portuguese civil servant to join this squadron, working as a radio operator; May 6th, 1946 - He was transferred to Santa Maria Island, where he remained for six months, executing the same functions at the American Air Force base built in that island; 1946/1947 - He returns to Terceira Island. In partnership with Mr. Cavallini, an American citizen and Radio Corporation of America´s engineer, he led the construction of the Local Broadcast Service. It was Terceira's first radio broadcasting station. It was located in Lajes Air Base (BA4); 1947 – João Pereira Porto, in the 1936th Communications Squadron, begins to have a relevant participation in the communications received and transmitted in Terceira Island, during the Cold War (1947-1991); 1950 to 1989 - He made several secret trips to various international destinations (Algeria, Wash- ington D.C., Colorado), which always made PIDE very curious about them; 1989 - He retired after 43 years, 4 months and 26 days of service; June 27th, 2012 - He died, in São Miguel Island. During João Pereira Porto's career the high level of confidence the North American military forces had in the Portuguese workers was demonstrated, and in this particular case, in João Pereira Porto, to carry out highly confidential missions which demanded an immaculate pro- fessionalism and a sense of responsibility. In the 1960's, one such mission occurred, when João Pereira Porto received a set of coded and sealed instructions from the USA. It consisted in operating an electronic device which would be transported by the American Military Police from the Lajes Air Base to the Cinco Picos Station, where it would remain in a room of an access exclusively authorised to João Pereira Porto. Once there, and with no other people around, João Pereira Porto should press a device´s button at the indicated time. After a few minutes, a whistle would be immitted, which would stop after a few seconds. Once the pro- cedure was finished, the device, covered by a metal box, would return to its place of origin under the American Military Police protection. As far as it was possible to find out, the objec- tive was the synchronisation of the atomic clock aboard the Lockheed U-2. João Pereira Porto pressed the button a few minutes before the Lockheed U-2 missile base spy plane passed through Terceira Islands' airspace, and so the device would start beeping at the exact moment of the plane's passage. Communications in Terceira Island The Cold War (1947-1991)�� Circa 1947 - After World War II (1939-1945), Western Europe, which was still very fragile, entered a period of major political and social changes. This process, combined with the Soviet Union's growing military power, could lead to an invasion of several European territories by the Soviet Union, a hypothesis that enormously worried the United States of America; April 4th, 1949 - To deal with this situation, the USA immediately sought to create new agree- ments, and reinforce the existing ones, with various European states, to maintain its bases in those territories alongside their intercontinental military operations. This context, which lasted a considerable period of time, became known as the Cold War. It is in these circumstances that NATO (Navy Atlantic North Organization) was formed, which Portugal joined in 1949, as one of the twelve founding countries; Portugal's NATO membership was fundamental for the USA since it wanted the continued occupation and use of the Lajes Air Base. A process that was in progress since 1944, during World War II, due to the important geopolitical condition of Azores. After 1949 - In Terceira island, the 1936th Communications Squadron, which was part of Cinco Picos Station, in addition to having passed numerous communications in the Cold War context, controlled air traffic in the North Atlantic and provided electronic assistance during stopovers between the USA and Europe. In addition, a cable that connected Washington D.C. and Moscow passed through this station; November 15th, 1961 - The USA Air Force owned, since the 1950s, communications stations close to the Lajes Air Base, such as the Naval Security Group Activity, in Lajes, and NavaID (navi- gation support station), in Agualva; 1991 - With the end of the Cold War and the subsequent disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1991, which coincided with the end of the Gulf War, the American armed forces started to reduce the military contingents in Terceira Island and in the Lajes Air Base; 1994 – NSGA deactivation; 2022 - Despite this reduction, the Lajes Air Base still has military presence, namely, the Portu- guese Air Force and the USA Air Force, with the 65th Air Base Group.