September 2022 Issue 07 9 FREE GESTATION TABLE FOR COWS 20 LIVESTOCK MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS – FOR CATTLE, GOATS & SHEEP 4 FREE Broiler Management Training 18 Crop Management Systems 11 Importance in the role of Bees Contents 3 Editors Note 4 4 Solar Bottle Bulb – DIY 6 Cattle Auction in October 7 7 Agriculture Robots Vs Humans 8 Irvine’s Botswana 9 9 Identify Your Soil Type 10 Lifecycle of Chickens 12 Crop Management 13 All about Cow Gestation 14 FREE Gestation Table for Cattle 15 Kids Experiment – Lava Lamp 14 16 The Bonsmara Breed 17 Online Agricultural Courses 17 19 Brain Twisters 20 Fun Facts about Sheep 22 Livestock Management System 20 “Together we can share knowledge, and feed our Nation” Issue 7 – September 2022 EDITORS NOTE Jerileigh du Preez Temo Thuo Farmers Directory Founder (+267) 754 84 559 firstname.lastname@example.org Dear Readers, It’s time to bring into being a new future, feeding the world, caring for the earth. My heart is very passionate about our planet, animals and mother earth. In this edition of the Temo Thuo Farmers Directory Magazine, we will be shining a Our well-being solely depends on this light on a recycled solar bottle bulb, planet which gives food and water to all agriculture robotics, and measuring soil living things, so it is our responsibility to types. We are also giving away a FREE take care of it. Cow Gestation chart. I believe that a clean environment is essential for healthy living, and TTFD is also offering all farmers our NEW enhancing our relationship with nature. livestock management system, available for cattle, goats, and sheep. It is our duty to protect our earth, because caring for our earth means I certainly hope this issue highlights maintaining the existence of living beings some interesting agricultural news. and our future generations. We are in search of creative solutions as I trust that every reader shall thoroughly well as inspiration for readers to set enjoy our 7th Issue of this magazine goals and become the new era of under the Temo Thuo Farmers Directory. entrepreneurs. Jerileigh du Preez 3 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 7 – September 2022 THE SOLAR BOTTLE BULB OLD PLASTIC BOTTLES HAVE BEEN USED TO LIGHT UP MORE THAN 850 000 HOMES AROUND THE WORLD This system was developed by We take for granted our electric impurities and chlorine, tap Litre of Light, and they assist lights, windows, and skylights to water should not be used. poor communities in access the sun’s glow, but for assembling their own lights those living in close-together The solution of water and and using old plastic bottles shacks with corrugated-metal bleach will prevent mold filled with water and bleach. roofs, a stray ray is welcome, growth in the bottle. It will and something that can spread last up to several years Litre of Light is a global, light to the darkest interior before you must change the grassroots movement corners can be a dream come solution. committed to providing true. Let’s run through how this affordable, sustainable solar easy concept works. STEP TWO: light to people with limited or no access to electricity. Materials required to complete Screw the cap on the bottle your Solar Bottle Light: tightly and wrap the electric Through a network of tape around the cap to partnerships around the - 1 liter or 2 liter clear plastic - block direct sunlight from world, Liter of Light volunteers bottle and cap weakening it. teach marginalized - Chlorine bleach communities how to use - Distilled water STEP THREE: recycled plastic bottles and - Roof sealant locally sourced materials to You must cut a hole in your illuminate their homes, STEP ONE: roof that is the same businesses, sheds, outside circumference as the bottle lighting, and chicken coops, Fill the bottle with distilled - On a sheet of paper, trace etc. water within a few inches from around the base of your the top, then add a few bottle with the marker. Liter of Light has installed tablespoons of bleach and allow Cut out the circle and trace more than 350,000 bottle the bleach to mix on its own around it with the marker lights in more than 15 with the water. WARNING - Do where you will insert the countries and taught green not shake the solution. Due to solar light bottle. skills to empower grassroots 4 TEMO THUO FARMERS entrepreneurs MAGAZINE at every stop. Issue 7 – September 2022 STEP FOUR: STEP SEVEN: As an alternative method installing your solar light Use the specific hole saw for bulb, insert the bottle into a your roof type and saw the Follow the same procedure to cut-out fitted hole to a 1 hole for your new solar light make and install more solar meter-by-1 meter square of bottle. light bottles in a large room, or sheet metal before setting it for more than one room. over a cut-out hole in your STEP FIVE: roof. You will no longer need electric Set your bottle in place about power to light up a dark room Make sure that the hole in halfway through the hole. during the daytime. the roof is a larger The UV rays striking the upper circumference than the half of the bottle will activate This solution should effectively bottle, and use a metal the solution and give the room light your room for about two screw to screw down each as much light as a 55-watt to five years. corner of the sheet metal bulb. square. Apply roof sealant Once the bleach/water solution along each edge. STEP SIX: becomes clouded, replace your solar bottle light and solution, or Use a roof sealant around the just the solution. bottle where it contacts your roof. Put an even coating If you replace only the solution, Temo Thuo Farmers Directory Magazine around the bulb to hold it in be sure to rinse the bottle well. takes no responsibility or liability for any place. It will also prevent This will stop the mold and damages or injuries caused by individuals using this method, use this method at leaks. bacteria from growing. your own risk. 5 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE 18 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 7 – September 2022 Can robots replace farmers? WHAT IS THE FUTURE OF In the future, robots will increasingly replace farm ROBOTICS IN AGRICULTURE? workers, probably sooner than we think, using artificial Electric farm and factory robots with intelligence to plant, grow and harvest our food. In fact, interchangeable tools, including low- many farms globally are already using fleets of robots, tillage solutions, soft robotic grasping which attend to fruits and veggies more efficiently than a technologies and sensors, will support human can. the sustainable intensification of agriculture, drive manufacturing It seems a bit conflicting, doesn’t it? I mean, our reliance productivity and underpin future food on technologies to make our lives better and easier, security. versus our apprehension towards other technologies that might threaten our occupation or expertise. These autonomous machines are able to perform many different tasks related to What will happen to those who are reliant on their crop maintenance, including weeding, hands-on work with agricultural crops? Are Agricultural seeding, applying pesticides and robotics a threat to farm workers? herbicides, harvesting fruits and vegetables, thinning plants, and tilling If robots could keep individuals from throwing out their the soil. backs while completing laborious and repetitive tasks in agriculture, or coat their skin in chemicals as they spray The main applications for autonomous pesticides across the field, or work under the blazing sun farm technology are the preparation and beating on their backs, why not employ them? Why ploughing of the soil, known as tillage, should individuals be doing all this, even for the sake of as well as milking, harvesting, weeding, income, if there are technologies that can help alleviate and pest control. their work life? 7 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE (+267) 392 2326 (+267) 72 728 717 / (+267) 76 700 083 Issue 7 – September 2022 IDENTIFY YOUR SOIL TYPE Step one: Water Fill a clear glass jar halfway with your soil sample. Step two: Fill the remaining half with water, leaving 1 inch of air. Clay Step three: Attach the lid, then shake the jar vigorously until you have broken up any clumps of soil. Silt Step four: Set the jar aside to rest overnight, undisturbed. Sand After 24 hours, your jar’s contents will have settled into distinct layers. SAND SILT CLAY To have a productive garden, a good soil mix is essential to promote healthy plants that are less susceptible By examining the proportions of these layers, you can to pests' attacks. In general, the soil gain a sense of what type of soil you have, and what used for growing edibles should be you need to add to improve your soil quality. loamy and well-draining. Here are some examples to use for comparison. The Good soil allows roots to quickly ideal soil consists of equal parts of sand, silt and clay. develop and spread, which in turn increases the water and nutrient intake necessary for healthy and productive plants. The ideal soil texture consists of equal parts of sand, silt, and clay; this type of soil is referred to as “loam”. Loamy soil has that perfect balance—it holds moisture but also drains well, allows oxygen to reach plants' roots, and is rich in decayed organic material. Let’s preserve the earth’s soil by using 25% Clay 30% Clay 50% Clay organic agrochemicals, as 25% Silt 40% Silt 25% Silt soil provides ecosystem services 50% Sand 30% Sand 25% Sand critical for life 9 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 7 – September 2022 CHICKEN Stage 1: Egg Fertilization Day 2: Tissue development Day 14: Head turns to pip The first stage of the chicken life starts as does blood circulation. position. cycle is the egg getting fertilized. Day 3: Heart starts to beat and Day 15: Chick will consume Roosters will try to court the blood vessels are visible. egg white. ladies and put themselves Day 4: Amniotic sac starts to Day 16: They are now forward as the best rooster for a develop. completely feathered. flock husband. However, hens are quite fussy in their selection Day 5: Elbows and knees Day 17: Egg white is now of a mate. develop and their eyes are absorbed and their head is They consider things like visible whilst candling. between their legs. attentiveness, appearance, and Day 6: Beak starts to form and Day 18: They are almost fully food finding, which gives her an voluntary movement starts. grown now. The yolk sac is still idea of the roosters’ health, his Day 7: Comb begins to grow. outside the body and their ability to find food, and whether Day 8: Feather follicles start to head is under their right wing. or not he will make a good flock appear and ear canals open. If your eggs are in the leader. Day 9: Claws begin to develop incubator this is lockdown day. Mating behaviour involves and the embryo now looks bird- Day 19: Yolk sac moving into tidbitting where the rooster finds like. the body and embryo now something interesting and starts calling hens. He starts by picking Day 10: Egg teeth and claws are occupies all the space except up food and dropping it formed. the air cell. repeatedly until a hen Day 11: Tail feathers start Day 20: The Yolk sac is approaches to investigate. growing. absorbed and the umbilicus The rooster that wins is usually Day 12: Feathers starting to now closed. The embryo starts the healthiest out of the bunch. appear. to breathe air and becomes a Day 13: Leg scales start to chick. Stage 2: Egg Embryo appear and they have a light Day 21: Hatching is usually Day 1: Development of the covering of feathers over their accomplished within eighteen germinal disk begins. body. hours but can drag on a little. 10 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Stage 3: Chick Chicks learn things very quickly Stage 5: Hen (Adult) Once the hatched chick is dry especially if they are raised by a Now we come to the final and fluffed up they can safely broody hen. She will teach them stage of their life cycle. be moved to a brooder area. all the good things to eat, things to stay away from and dangers Hens usually start to lay Once in the brooder the chick to be aware of. A mother hen around the twenty-week mark should be introduced to water and her chicks is an endearing on average. Their first eggs will and feed and placed under the sight. be small and infrequent. light or brooder plate. Stage 4: Pullet (Teenager) The average chicken can live The food should contain A chick becomes a pullet or anywhere from 3 to 8 years. enough protein, vitamins and cockerel at four weeks of age minerals for sustained growth and lasts for around 12 weeks. Keep the space clean, as the over the next several weeks. build-up of parasites and Once you have determined the bacteria can cause many The chick is initially covered in sexes it is time to separate problems from worms to a fine down coat, but they will them. It is also the time that coccidiosis. start to lose this coat at 6-8 they start to assert themselves days of age. and find their place in the These creatures have a pecking order. structured hierarchy, The second small molt will start around 7-12 weeks. At Older and higher ranking hens great memories, and are this point the feathering will will ensure that the social order able to learn and give start to differentiate the boys is kept and the pullets will have much pleasure to from the girls. to work their way up gradually. humans. 11 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE CROP MANAGEMENT MONITORING SYSTEMS ON-SITE MONITORING REMOTE MONITORING Powered by: Cell: (+267) 71 61 4007 Email: email@example.com Issue 7 – September 2022 ALL About Gestation length by the dam’s age: cow gestation In the same study, shows the average gestation length was however shorter in first-calving, which was: cows - 279.5 days for first calvers and 280.8 days for second calvers. Animal evaluation using gestation length: Animal evaluation uses calving and associated mating information, along with the sires’ gestation length BV in determining which bull sired which calf. The rules around whether a sire is assigned to a calf also depend on calf gender and whether the calf is a single or one of multiple. Animal evaluation uses 282 days for heifer calves, 283 days for bull calves, and 276 days for multiple births. Mating's that fall within an 11 day window of the Expected calving dates are very estimated mating date are accepted. The calculated important for a number of herd mating date is worked out using the actual calving date management practices and also minus 282, 283, or 276 days depending on calf gender knowing when things will be and whether it’s a multiple, and then adding half of the really busy on the farm. sire’s gestation length BV, as roughly half of the calf’s genetics come from its sire. The gestation length does vary by breed and by sex of the calf. Calving Difficulty: Gestation length ranges from about 279 to 287 days. For Higher birthweights are generally linked to difficult most breeds, 283 days would be calving's, although the dam and calf conformation can the most common. Cows carrying mean that heavier calves don’t always cause bull calves tend to have a slightly complications. longer gestation compared to cows carrying heifer calves. The trouble with managing calving difficulty in the dairy industry is that huge numbers of calves are born every Recent research (Donkersloot, day, and farmers cannot be expected to record 2014) on more than 58,000 New birthweights when there’s so much else to do on the Zealand animals found the average farm at that time of year. gestation length to be: Cows under stress causes a reduction in blood flow to 282.7 days for bull calves the uterus, triggering premature calving. 281.2 days for heifer calves When nights do not cool down, the cow's body does not reach a thermo-neutral state, and the heat stress builds. 13 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 7 – September 2022 Get your FREE printable Cow Gestation Table! Available to download from our website or our Facebook page 14 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 7 – September 2022 INSTRUCTIONS Step one: Fill the bottle up about 1/4th (1 quarter) with water. Step two: Pour the vegetable oil in the bottle until is almost full. You may want to use a measuring cup with a spout or a funnel. Step Three: Wait a couple of minutes for the oil and water to separate. Step four: Add a few drops of your favourite food colouring, and watch as the colour sinks through the oil. LAVA LAMP Did your drops of colour mix with the water immediately SCIENCE EXPERIMENT or float in between for a few minutes? Break your fizzy tablet in half and drop part of it into the HOW TO MAKE A bottle. SELF WATERING Get ready … because here come the bubbly colourful MINI GREEN HOUSE blobs! One great thing about this You can even get a flashlight, turn off the lights and drop specific science experiment is in another half tablet. This time shine the flashlight that you only need a few through the lava lamp while the blobs are bubbling! supplies and you probably already have most of them in your home. The science of how this experiment works: The oil floats on top of the water because it is less dense or lighter than water. The food colouring has the same density as the water so it sinks through the oil and mixes with the water. When you add the tablet it sinks to the Supplies needed: bottom and then starts to dissolve. As it dissolves it makes gas and carbon dioxide. - A clean plastic bottle (try to use one with smooth sides) Gas or air is lighter than water so it floats to the top. The - Water air bubbles bring some coloured water with them to the - Vegetable Oil (or you could top. When the air comes out of the coloured water blob, use Mineral or Baby Oil instead) the water gets heavy again and sinks. - Fizzing tablets (such as Alka Seltzer) It does this over and over again until the tablet is - Food Colouring completely dissolved. 15 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 7 – September 2022 EVERYTHING TO KNOW ABOUT The Bonsmara has been scientifically bred and exactly selected for economizing production in the expansive cattle grazing regions of South Africa. The Bonsmara has come so popular that it has grown to be numerically the strongest beef breed in South Africa in less than 25 years. Originating in South Africa as a encourages cow efficiency, and height at withers in adult males scientific experimentation of the outstanding mothering is about 123 cm. professor Bonsma, the ability under all environmental Bonsmara was created circumstances, even extensive Weights: after numerous cross mating's african climates, and this is the Mature cows weigh on an and back- crosses conforming of reason for their admiration, average between 500 to 550 five- eighths Afrikaner( Sanga- hence, why the Bonsmara kg, producing calves with an type), three- sixteenths should be at the top of the average weaning weight of Hereford, and three- sixteenths commercial cattle farmer’s list. around 230 kg each, where as Shorthorn( both taurine types). the bulls can weigh around 800 Bonsmara breed is used mainly kg. The breed was recognized in for beef, and produce high 1964, and was officially quality meat. The main difference between registered in 1972. beefmaster and bonsmara: Bonsmaras have a calm Both breeds comprise 25% At present, the Bonsmara breed temperament, which makes it Hereford and 25% Shorthorn, isn't solely in South Africa, but easy to work with them, and but the Bonsmara has 50% is also found in Botswana, the cows have a good maternal Afrikaner, whereas the Namibia, Zimbabwe, Zambia, ability. Beefmaster has 50% Brahman. Swaziland, Mozambique, DR Congo, Angola, Rwanda, as well Physical characteristics: as Argentina, Australia, Brazil, The breed has a uniform red Greenway Bonsmara and in US. and brown coat, medium horn, Jan Bekker Bonsmaras are selected and bred a slight hump in the bull and a (+267) 716 26 752 through a system that effectively good beef formation. Average firstname.lastname@example.org 16 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE ENROLL NOW (+267) 76 25 22 44 email@example.com Issue 7 – September 2022 Temo Thuo farmers Directory is in collaboration with Agricolleges AVAILABLE COURSES international which is a modern, cloud- INTRODUCTORY COURSES; based online learning institution. ⇝ Introduction to Agribusiness. ⇝ Introduction to Animal production. We provide students with affordable, ⇝ Introduction to Plant Production. accessible and industry-relevant education and training in the fields of FUNDAMENTALS COURSES; agriculture and related agri-industries. ⇝ Fundamentals of Agribusiness. ⇝ Fundamentals of Avocado production. ACI’s unique offering provides access to ⇝ Fundamentals of Good Agricultural Practices. information in an online, blended and ⇝ Fundamentals of Macadamia Production. shared learning environment, available ⇝ Fundamentals of Maize production. from anywhere at any time. ACI offers various short courses in Agribusiness, CITRUS COURSES; Plant and Animal Production, as well ⇝ Citrus Harvesting. accredited one-year NQF Level 4 ⇝ Citrus Packaging. National Certificate courses. ⇝ Citrus Planting Management. ⇝ Citrus Propagation, Plant Structures & Functions. ⇝ Citrus Pruning. ⇝ Integrated Pest management for Citrus. NATIONAL CERTIFICATES; Contact us today for more information ⇝ National Certificate in general Agriculture. firstname.lastname@example.org ⇝ National Certificate in Plant Production. (+267) 76 25 22 44 ⇝ National Certificate in Animal Production. 18 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 7 – September 2022 BRAIN - TWISTER 1. A farmer had 500 sheep and took one shot that got them all. How did he do it? 2. I run all around the pasture/field But never move. What am I? 3. A farmer in Botswana grows a beautiful pear tree, which he harvests to supply fruit to all the nearby grocery stores. One of the store owners has called the farmer to see how much fruit is available that he can buy. Unfortunately, the farmer isn't currently near the tree, so he has to work it out in his head. He knows that the main trunk of the tree has 24 branches. That each branch has 12 boughs and that each bough has only got 6 twigs. Each one of these twigs bears one piece of fruit, so how many plums will he be able to sell to the store owner? “Hey! Those are not menus!” LETTUCE CARROTS ANSWERS 1. With a camera. 2. A fence. 3. None! He doesn't own a PLUM tree... he owns a PEAR tree! DO YOU HAVE ANY TRICKY FARMING RIDDLES, ANY QUESTIONS REGARDING FARMING FOR OUR NEXT Q&A PAGE, OR ARE YOU A CREATOR OF COMIC STRIPS AND WOULD LIKE TO BE FEATURED IN OUR MAGAZINE? Give us a call, send us an email, or a WhatsApp for more info. 19 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 7 – September 2022 Sheep have rectangular pupils. prevent or treat disease, and expressions, such as pictures of Rectangular pupils allow for a teach their young to do the sheep with calm, startled, or wide field of vision, around 270 same. fearful expressions. to 320 degrees. This means that sheep can see almost everything There are over 1000 breeds of Sheep are emotionally around them, except for what’s sheep. complex with distinct directly behind them, without With all of these different personalities. having to turn their heads! breeds, there exist some very Sheep are capable of unique characteristics. experiencing a wide range of Sheep have an excellent sense emotions, just as humans do. of smell. Sheep do not have top front Many studies have highlighted One way sheep communicate teeth. the ability of sheep to feel with each other and their Sheep have a hard upper afraid, angry, bored, sad, and surroundings is through scent. palate that the lower teeth happy. Sheep have scent glands in front press up against to break down of their eyes and between the food. Not only are sheep able to feel digits of their hooves that basic emotions, but their produce smelly secretions used Sheep are very social animals. feelings can be very complex. to communicate with one Sheep form strong bonds with another! one another, such as those between a mother and her Sheep can self-medicate. lamb, and other friendships. Sheep use plants and other Studies have revealed that substances that otherwise hold sheep can distinguish between no nutritional value to them to different emotional 20 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Join our WhatsApp group to receive the latest Farmers Magazine!