Machine Translated by Google What we need to know about resista ASSETS ACTION GUIDELINES Machine Translated by Google UDC 355.58 (474.5) 16th Editor-in-Chief dr. Karolis Aleksa Language editor Pranÿ Kuprienÿ Layout by Loreta Keršytÿ © Ministry of National Defense, 2016 ISBN 978-609-412-103-6 Machine Translated by Google TABLE OF CONTENTS 1 2 STARTING WORD 49 Drying 5 LITHUANIA BEFORE THE MODERN 51 Organization of sleep THREAT OF MILITARY CONFLICT (temporary accommodation) 8 PARTICIPATION IN ARMS 52 Medical preparation (individual IN THE DEFENSE OF THE COUNTRY pharmacy) 8 General principles for choosing a 56 First Aid Tips direct armed struggle 9 Ways of participating in the 56 Initial Resuscitation armed struggle 58 Stopping the bleeding 9 Aid to the resistance unit 60 First aid in case of shock 10 Actions within a resistance 61 First aid in case of burns unit 61 First aid for pelvic and limb 11 Distinctive signs of fractures resistance fighters and military equipment 61 General rules 12 Identification of the aggressor's 62 First aid for humerus military equipment and armament fractures 14 Chassis 63 First aid in case of femoral 16 Turret injury 16 Armament 65 First aid for pelvic fractures 20 Special features 65 Wound care 24 Identification of the 66 First aid for open chest aggressor's weapon 28 wounds Identification of ammunition 67 First Aid Open 34 Recommendations for action in the case of abdominal wounds found ammunition 68 Survival Pack (Items) 35 GROUNDS FOR SURVIVAL 69 Tools 35 Taking care of your safety 70 Fire and heat 35 Orientation in the environment safeguards 39 Taking care of your diet 71 Signaling devices 39 Food 72 Orientation measures 40 Water 73 Food and water 44 Recreation 74 Where more knowledge and 44 Special clothing skills can be acquired 45 Principles of preparation 75 References Machine Translated by Google 2 STARTING WORD Dear Lithuanian citizens, This is the third publication on the topic of civil resistance. Russia's military aggression against Ukraine. The first two publications, What We Need to Know About Emergency Preparedness and Wartime, which have received a great deal of attention, focused on non-violent civil protection and practical advice on how to act during emergencies or war. However, these publications did not cover another extremely important topic: how citizens in the occupied territory of the aggressor could actively oppose the invasive army or the armed groups supporting the aggressor. This is the main topic of this publication. The first, introductory part of this publication, prepared in co- operation with the Lithuanian Armed Forces and the Lithuanian Riflemen's Union, briefly presents the ways in which Russia, a potential aggressor, acts against neighboring countries. It sets out the arguments for what action a potential aggressor needs to be prepared for. Seeing the joint efforts of all of us to strengthen Lithuania recently, I am sure that we will be able to resist Russia's non-military means of aggression. However, we cannot rule out that a potential aggressor, even in spite of NATO's military might, will not take any military action against our country. So we have to be prepared to defend the Homeland. It is also a strong deterrent. Machine Translated by Google STARTING WORD 3 The second part of the publication presents the ways of participating in the country's armed defense. In this section you will find not only tips on how to fight the aggressor with a weapon, but also what other ways to actively resist. One of them is the identification of military equipment and weapons and the transmission of information about them to resistance fighters in the occupied territory of the country and to the Lithuanian Armed Forces. These recommendations are enlivened by simple and very eloquent pictures. The third part is devoted to the topic of survival. It should be noted that this topic is much more developed in this publication than in the publications “What we need to know about emergency preparedness and wartime”: we provide a lot of advice to help those who are struggling with weapons and other means in the occupied territory. I want to point out that these tips (for example, on the survival package) are beneficial to everyone in the country, even in peacetime. In closing, I would like to encourage everyone to read this publication and provide comments. Only together can we strengthen our country and better prepare for the worst-case scenario of a military invasion of our country. Still, I believe that our joint efforts will just help deter potential aggression. Meaningful reading and new thoughts! Minister of National Defense Juozas Olekas Machine Translated by Google Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 5 LITHUANIA BEFORE THE MODERN MILITARY CONFLICT DANGER A number of types of modern military conflict can be identified, but the focus needs to be on the actions of the neighboring country, Russia. This state does not shy away from using military force against its neighbors, and is currently largely engaged in military aggression against Ukraine. It does not hide the logic of its operation: its Chief of General Staff, General V. Gerasimov, has openly stated that in a modern military conflict it is important to use non-military means first to bring selected targets (states) within its sphere of influence, and only in the final stage. should use military force. Non-military means include information attacks, economic blackmail and all forms of politically obedient political forces. support in countries targeted by the aggressor. Russia's actions are also characterized by economic "tying", offering states lucrative economic deals that become leverage for its influence. Russia is also seeking to bribe state politicians who could take a course of state policy in its favor. Russia’s non- military action is designed to create an environment that will allow military action to begin in due course. Such a medium is the political, economic, fragmentation of the target country turmoil, rampant corruption, citizens' dissatisfaction with the state, the formation of a relatively large "fifth column". In such an environment, Russia may initiate a military phase in which armed clashes similar to the beginnings of civil war begin in its target country. As the example of Ukraine shows, Russia is strongly supporting armed groups Machine Translated by Google 6 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION (or forming them) that seek to divide the country and turn it into hostage. Ukraine's example shows that Russia and its armed groups often use modern weapons in armed conflict (artillery, tanks and other military equipment). It also lacks the political will to continue its military action, despite the economic and political sanctions imposed on the West, and thus to force Ukraine to fight continuously against pro-Russian armed groups. In addition, Russia is cleverly and often pursuing a policy of birth and ambiguity that hinders (especially at the beginning of a military invasion) an immediate understanding of its true actions and responsibilities. In preventing such a policy, the awareness and will of the citizens to resist is particularly important: when these elements are strong, it is difficult for the aggressor to create a medium for military invasion. On the other hand, it cannot be ruled out that Russia may decide to use military force without having created the appropriate medium for a military invasion. This means that citizens must not only allow the state to be weakened when it is attempted to be affected by information attacks and other means, but must also be prepared to to launch a military invasion to combat the weapon. It may happen that the aggressor manages to temporarily occupy part of the country's territory, in which case the citizens who remain in the occupied territory of the country can choose to fight with a weapon or other means. The rest of the publication reveals possible ways to combat this. Russia's aggression against Ukraine: key lessons from hybrid warfare Information operations and cyber capabilities have become important elements of Russia's military campaigns. This state often conducts information operations: its inhabitants and Western countries Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 7 the public receives different types of information about what is happening in the country chosen as the target of the hybrid war (Russia accuses the forces of that country of shooting the population of another country). Russia is the most active use of ground forces, but special forces also play an important role. For example, large groupings of conventional forces stationed near another country's border are becoming an instrument of military pressure, as well as a source of replenishment for the military equipment and armaments of separatist forces. Special forces trusted illegal tasks of setting up and training armed groups - after training the so-called separatist forces can go to war on their own, following direct instructions from Russia's political and military leadership. Special forces are often used to sabotage, conduct reconnaissance on the territory of another country, and destroy military and civilian command and communications systems; Before and during the armed conflict, Russia made extensive use of radio-electronic means of combat. They are used to disrupt state institutions, the armed forces, the media and others activities of vital entities. Plaÿiau žr. Project 1704. A U.S. Army War College Analysis of Russian Strategy in Eastern Europe, an Appropriate Implications for U. S. Landpower 2015 ( http:// www.strategicstudiesinstitute.army.mil/pubs/display.cfm?pubID=1274). Machine Translated by Google 8 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION PARTICIPATION IN ARMED DEFENSE General principles for choosing a direct armed struggle In the event that the aggressor occupies a part of the country's territory, the citizens of the Republic of Lithuania who find themselves in the occupied part must continue to follow the basic provision of the Constitution of their country that the defense of Lithuania is the right and duty of every citizen. All conscripts (both conscripts and non-conscripts) should try to join the Lithuanian in the unoccupied territory of the country. Citizens (conscripts who do not have the opportunity to escape the occupied territory and other residents) who remain in the occupied territory but wish to fight the aggressor with a weapon may do so, but are advised to adhere to a number of principles. First, to seek contact with the armed forces defending Lithuania. Lithuania It is important for the defending armed forces of the country and its allies to know about the outbreaks of armed resistance operating in the occupied territory in order to prevent accidental attacks against them, as well as to be able to carry out a joint operation to liberate the occupied territory of Lithuania. Secondly, to try to fight within the resistance unit: this could do much more damage to the aggressor and disrupt his planned military action, or effectively disrupt the day-to-day running of the occupying administration. Third, Lithuanian citizens with military skills should join such a unit. Such citizens would be very valuable, as they would have invaluable knowledge of how to organize the activities of a resistance unit (eg obtaining and using different weapons, protecting the unit, installing shelters, applying different combat tactics). Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 9 For those citizens who would like to choose other means of resistance than direct armed struggle, it is advisable to consider other anti-aggressor actions as described below. Ways of participating in the armed struggle Aid to the resistance unit Citizens who are unable to join the resistance unit or otherwise want to help defend the Homeland can do so as follows: to collect information on the occupying army and the occupation regime (eg the occupation army headquarters, the housing of the officers in charge of the occupation army, etc.); identify collaborators and provide information about them to resistance fighters; install stock hiding places and help store them. Resistance units are likely to need a number of stock covert agents to ensure greater security for combatants and greater ability to move around the battlefield. In these shelters, citizens can store a variety of tools that will be vital to ensuring the continuity of resistance units (medicines, perishable food, warm clothing, armaments, ammunition, etc.). For example, in 1991 During the events of January, Lithuanian defenders paid special attention to the supply of supplies and their location in different locations; Machine Translated by Google 10 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION to hide fighters and to care for hidden wounded members of the armed resistance. Resistance fighters will always be at high risk, and the support of citizens in hiding and caring for them will be invaluable. It must be borne in mind that the security (even life) of citizens assisting fighters will always be at stake, and assistance must be provided with the utmost care and secrecy; to help maintain resistance unit communications. Resistance fighters may find it unsafe to use modern means of communication and may need envoys. Envoys will be at particular risk and should operate with the least possible release from the general environment. Actions within a resistance unit Citizens who do not know and / or are unable to fight a weapon can also become members of a resistance unit and assist the units of such a unit: provide first aid and take care of complex medical care for injured members of the resistance unit. In combat operations, first and foremost, it is an invaluable medical aid that can save a friend and an active participant in an armed resistance. As a result, a good first aid knowledge of a citizen wishing to join a resistance unit will be particularly important. Such a citizen is advised to arrange in advance for the first necessary medical measures (bandage, disinfectant fluids) and to find out how to organize further medical care. (to establish contacts with reliable doctors, to find out the possibilities to use the hospitals in the occupation territory); Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 11 to provide food and water, as well as to provide food resistance for fighters. Water and hot food at least once a day will be very important to the unit of resistance and will undoubtedly contribute to maintaining its fighting spirit; take care of the hygiene of the fighters, ie wash and dry their clothes uniforms; to replenish existing armaments. It will probably be too difficult for members of the resistance unit to fight machine guns and machine guns (if the unit can get them) and shoot at the same time. Exceptional skills to patch said armament ammunition is not required, but such support may be important to a resistance unit, especially if it is preparing more intense firing or shooting intensively with aggressive soldiers. Distinctive signs of resistance fighters and military equipment It is recommended that the fighters of the resistance units wear bright, visible insignia, coordinated with the Lithuanian Armed Forces, which would help to avoid their own forces. loss, accidental injury or injury. It is noteworthy that such a mark is one of the proofs that resistance fighters are combatants under international law (other evidence: resistance fighters have a commander in charge of them, carry weapons openly and follow the laws and customs of war in their actions). The sliding mark can be, for example, a colored adhesive tape that is tied in a visible place: above the elbow, on ammunition belts or armor vests. It is recommended to mark the military equipment as well, to paint the agreed distinguishing marks from a distance. Machine Translated by Google 12 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Identification of the aggressor's military equipment and armament Being able to recognize the aggressor's military equipment and armament is important for both members of the resistance unit and those who assist them. In addition, if possible, information about the aggressor's military equipment and armaments should be passed on to the fighting Lithuanian armed forces. Given the importance of this possible assistance to the resistance in the occupied territory of the country and to the Lithuanian Armed Forces, detailed information is provided to help everyone identify military equipment and armaments. It is very likely that the aggressor will benefit a lot against Lithuania this year therefore it is advisable to identify it when assessing: chassis (tracks or wheels); tower; armaments; other special tags. The pictures below show where the parts are. Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 13 PRINCIPLES FOR IDENTIFICATION OF WHEELED VEHICLES Armament The tower Superstructure above the chassis Axis Axis Chassis BTR-80A PRINCIPLES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF WHEELED TRACKS Chassis The tower Armament 2S25 "SPRUT-SD" Machine Translated by Google 14 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Chassis When evaluating armored wheeled machinery, attention must be paid to the axles (bridges) and the distance between them. For example, armored wheel technology can have several axles (see figure ÿÿ page). Meanwhile, when evaluating and describing an armored crawler technique, several things need to be taken into account related to its chassis (see Figure ÿÿ page): first, its chassis has four types of wheels (drive, steer, track and support); second, the tracks may be tense or loose; third, there may be some gaps between the wheels of the road. Armor BRDM-ÿ Armored BTR-ÿÿ Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 15 PRINCIPLES FOR THE IDENTIFICATION OF WHEELED TRACKS Guide wheel Road Castors Drive wheels wheel Self-propelled artillery howitzer ÿSÿ GVOZDIKA Free tracks Self-propelled cannon ÿSÿ NONA-S Tight tracks Machine Translated by Google 16 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION The tower When evaluating an armored crawler and wheeled turret, two key points need to be taken into account: first, the turret is at the top of the chassis; second, the tower can be mounted in three different top locations on the chassis (see Figures ÿÿ and ÿÿ). Armament When describing armored vehicles, it is important to report not only the cannon, but also the possible presence of one or more machine guns, anti-tank missiles and smoke. curtain projectiles (see figures on pages ÿÿ and ÿÿ). Tower at the front of the chassis (paratrooper BMD-ÿ) Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 17 Tower in the middle of the chassis (infantry fighting machine BMP-ÿ) Tower at the rear of the chassis (self-propelled howitzer ÿSÿ GVOZDIKA) Machine Translated by Google 18 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Armored BTR-ÿÿ Machine gun Tank T-ÿÿ Dome machine gun Smoke curtain projectiles Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 19 Tank T-ÿÿ Course machine gun While this may not be as vital, providing information on cannon- mounted fire dampers and extractors can also help resistance units and the Lithuanian Armed Forces gain a clearer picture of a concentrated or moving aggressive military. technique (see figure below). ÿSÿÿ (MSTA-S) Self-propelled artillery howitzer Fire damper Gas remover Machine Translated by Google 20 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Special tags In addition to the chassis, turret and armament already mentioned, armored vehicles may have other special markings which, when identified, could be used to identify concentrated or moving armored vehicles. The following can be considered as special marks (see figure ÿÿ page): antennas (their number); signs (state mark (coat of arms), number, coat of arms of a weapon type, landmarks, flags); the color of the technique (beige, green or camouflage); chassis protective screens; the number and arrangement of night vision (infrared) searchlights. Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 21 BMD-ÿ Paratrooper fighter Antennas Signs Chassis protective screens Camouflage color Tank T-ÿÿ Active security system STORAGE Infrared floodlights Machine Translated by Google 22 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Example of the description of armored wheeled machinery Armored BTR-ÿÿ 4 8 5 3 6 7 2 2 1 Chassis: wheeled, 4 axles (8 wheels); the distance between the front two axles and the rear is larger, the door is visible (1); between the first and second axes and the third and fourth axles, the foot (2). Turret: at the front of the armor (3). Armament: 12.7 mm machine gun (KPVT) in front of the turret (4); at the end of the tower - smoky grenades (5). Special markings: housing end status, exhaust pipes horizontal at the rear (6), firing holes set diagonally (7); a long antenna (8) is visible at the rear; technique painted green (khaki). Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 23 Example of the description of armored tracked machinery Sÿ GVOZDIKA Self-propelled artillery howitzer 3 2 4 5 4 1 Chassis: crawler wheels, 7 wheel drive, front wheel drive (1). Turret: at the rear of the chassis. Armament: cannon with degasser (extractor) 2/3 from the "cradle" (2), fire damper at the mouth of the pipe (3). Special markings: white number 232 on the tower and rear door (4), white circle with a dot in the middle on the hull below the tower (5), technique painted green (khaki). Machine Translated by Google 24 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION It is especially important to note that you only need to describe what is really there we see, not imagine. The information provided by citizens will allow professional reconnaissance and experienced resistance fighters to determine exactly what military equipment is. Recognition of the aggressor's weapons Citizens also need to be aware of the individual weapons used by a potential aggressor, such as motorcycles and special weapons. forces with new firearms. If these weapons are noticed, they should also be reported to the Lithuanian Armed Forces. It is recommended to note this individual armament of the motos (See Fig. ÿÿ, ÿÿ, ÿÿ, ÿÿ pages). Pistols PMM MPÿ443 "GRACH" GSHÿ18 Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 25 Automatic rifles AKÿ74 AKSÿ74U New generation automatic rifles AKÿ12 AKÿ12 Machine guns PKMS PK GPMG Machine Translated by Google 26 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Hand-held machine gun RPKÿ74 Hand grenade launcher RPGÿ7 Sniper rifle „DRAGUNOV“ SVD Submersible grenade launcher GPÿ25 Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 27 Attention is drawn to the following individual armaments of special forces (automatic rifles): VSS VINTOREZ AS VAL SRÿ3M VIKHR Machine Translated by Google 28 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Recognition of ammunition In times of peace, and especially of the aggression against Lithuania, it is important for all the population to know as much as possible the various ammunition that were used during the combat operations, but retain their destructive properties for a long time. Also, knowing that certain ammunition is being used can help protect against them. Better knowledge of these munitions will also lead to a better understanding of what military equipment is used. Artillery shells Artillery shells are a type of ammunition fired by artillery. The scattering distance of exploded artillery shells can be up to ÿÿÿÿ meters. Examples of unexploded ordnance Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 29 Minesweeper mines Minesweeper mines are a type of ammunition fired by minesweepers. Depending on the caliber, exploded mine fragments can fly up to ÿÿÿÿ meters. Examples of mortars Machine Translated by Google 30 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Aviation bombs Aerial bombs are a type of aerial ammunition. Depending on the weight of the aircraft bomb, an exploded aircraft bomb can explode up to ÿÿÿÿ meters. Examples of aviation bombs Anti-personnel, anti-tank and special destination mines These types of mines are usually stationary ammunition, which can become active on their own when they hit (stand up to) a target, or they can be activated. Depending on the purpose of the mines their fragments the scattering distance can be up to ÿÿÿ meters. Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 31 Machine Translated by Google 32 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Guided and unguided missiles Guided and unguided missiles are massive ammunition moving on the principle of jet motion. Depending on the missile The range of the caliber of exploded missile shards can be up to ÿÿÿÿ meters. Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 33 Firearms and hand grenades Firearms and hand grenades are a type of explosive ammunition commonly used by infantry for self-defense or assault. The dispersal distance of exploded grenades can be up to ÿÿÿ meters. Machine Translated by Google 34 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Recommendations for action when ammunition is found If you find unexploded ordnance in peace, do not touch it under any circumstances, and call the general emergency number as soon as possible ÿÿÿ. The responsible services will isolate the area and the dangerous will make the finding harmless. Also, do not touch such a find in any way during the war. If you have a STOP bar, enclose the area. If you do not have them, cover the area with wires, barbed wire, laundry rope, etc. and affix the inscription MINOS, regardless of the type of unexploded ordnance you find. Then try a dangerous place notify nearby members of the armed forces who will arrive and render the dangerous finding ineffective. If contact with the soldiers is not possible, warn the surrounding area by clearly indicating the danger area and make sure that the warning signs are always visible. At the end of a military conflict, when the military cleans up the territory, be sure to warn them of the unexploded ordnance found in your area during the war so that it can be removed and no longer endanger the population. Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 35 GROUNDS FOR SURVIVAL In the field of survival, advice can be valuable not only to combatants belonging to resistance units, but also to all other citizens left in the occupied territory who have lost their permanent homes and have been forced to live in extreme conditions. Of course, a lot of these tips will be useful for all Lithuanians and in times of peace. Every citizen will be better prepared to survive outdoors (both in uninhabited areas and in the city) if we take into account the following basics of survival, which will be described in more detail: must take care of safety (orientation in the environment); must take care of nutrition (provide food and water); must take care of rest (preparation for sleep and warmth); must be able to take care of their own health (first in terms of knowledge and skills). It should be noted that first aid advice is given in accordance with conventional medicine. Other advice (on nutrition, water supply) includes unconventional methods. Taking care of security Orienteering in the environment In the absence of access to standard equipment for navigating the environment, the required direction of movement can be determined with a self-contained compass, ie a compass that can be self-made: Machine Translated by Google 36 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION magnetize the needle or shaving blade with a magnet or rubbing it into wool, silk, hair for about a few minutes, or by twisting the needle or shaving blade with an insulated wire, the ends of which must be connected to poles of at least 2-6 V and supported at least 10 min. (The wire connected to the + pole will magnetize the needle end to the south), see fig. 38 p .; insert the magnetized needle into a piece of stopper or travel mat approximately 5 to 10 mm thick. The needle can also be placed on a dry leaf of a tree, inserted into the straw, and then carefully placed in the fresh water. One end of the needle will point north and the other south. It is suggested to note this on the piece of cork already mentioned (which will show the tip of the needle, for example, to the north, to help identify the following methods or natural phenomena - lichens and mosses in the northern part of the tree on the sides of trunks, stones, roofs; coniferous resins accumulate more on the southern side of the trunk; a denser tree crown on the south side; the steeper slope of the anthill to the south Machine Translated by Google GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION 37 side; snow on various objects first melts on the south side, etc.). Avoid storing metal objects near such a compass. You can also identify countries around the world by hanging a horizontal needle or razor blade in the middle of the thread and inserting it into a glass or plastic bottle. Orientation is also possible by clock and sun. Given that in the northern hemisphere the sun rises in the east (northeast), at noon in the south (when the sun is shorter) and sets in the west (southwest), point the clock clock to the sun and the interval between the hour hand and 12 o'clock (natural). time) divide in half (summer you can set the direction more precisely by dividing the hour between the hour hand and 1 p.m., because daylight saving time is in effect). This will be the north-north direction. Lunch will be on the side where the sun is shining on your face (see figure on page 39). Machine Translated by Google 38 GUIDELINES FOR ACTIVE ACTION Orientation is also possible by shade and sun. Insert a pole, fishing rod, hiking stick or something similar about 1 m high in the open. Mark the end of the shadow falling from it with a stone or other hand tool (circle 1 in the diagram). After about 20-40 minutes. the shadow will be sufficient to apply this method. Also mark the end of the shifted shadow (circle 2 in the diagram). A straight line between the two the west-east line will be marked (circle 3 in the diagram). If you divide the space between the two ends of the shadows (1 and 2) in half by an imaginary or drawn area (red line in the diagram), you will have a south-north line (south side where the sun is shining on your back).