WELCOME TO MYPAL EDUCATION JAY PRASAD SINGH CO-FOUNDER- MYPAL EDUCATION & A DIGITAL ENTREPRENEUR. The Complete Computer Basic Course in Hindi Part- 1 Kiske Liye Hai Ye Course? Online Business ?? Contents 1 Introduction to Computer 8 Programming Concepts 2 Computer Architecture 9 Microsoft Windows 3 Computer Hardware 10 Microsoft O ce 4 Computer Memory 11 Database Concepts Data Communication & 5 Data Representation 12 Networking 6 Computer Software 13 Internet & Its Services 7 Operating Software 14 Computer Security • Each chapter caries a Question Bank. • Full Forms & Technical Words Explanation. ffi 1. Introduction To Computer What is Computer ? A computer is an electronic device that manipulates information or data according to the set of instruction. It has the ability to store, nd and arrange information, calculate amounts and control other machines. Meaning Of Computer(1)- The word computer has derived from English word “Compute”, which means to calculate. Meaning Of Computer(1) - Computer comes from the Latin ‘putare’ which means both to think and to prune. fi Functioning of a Computer Computer performs 4 basic function. 1. Input- When a computer or device is receiving a command or signal from outer sources, the event is referred to as input to the device. 2. Processing-It is the sequence of action taken on data to convert it into information which is meaningful to users. It can be print out, calculations, comparisons etc. 3. Output- It makes processed data available to the user. It is mainly used to display the desired result to the user as per instructions. 4. Storage-It stores data and programs permanently. It is used to store information during the time of program execution and possible to get anytime of information from it. Features of Computer 1. Speed- The computer can process data very fast at the rate of millions of instructions per second. 2. Accuracy- Computers provide a high degree of accuracy. They respond to the user as per the input instructions. 3. Storage capacity- Computers are capable to store huge amount of data which depends on the capacity of hard disk. 4. Versatility- Computers can do di erent types of work simultaneously. They can perform multiple tasks at a time. 5. Automation-Once the instruction to do any task is given to the computer, the computer does its work automatically by itself. ff 6. Diligence- Unlike human beings, a computer is free from Boringness, tiredness, lack of concentration, etc. and can work for hours without creating any errors. 7. Secrecy- Leakage of information is reduced by creating log in system with password protection. 8. Reliability- Computers are more reliable than human beings. Computers always produce exact results. The possibility of errors occur only if the input is wrong, the computers never make of their own accord. 9. Plug and Play- Computers have the ability to automatically con gure a new hardware and software component. fi Quick Words & Definitions 1. Hardware- It is the collection of physical elements that constitutes a computer system. These are the physical part of the computer, ex- Mouse, Keyboard, Monitor etc. 2. Software- It is a set of programs and procedures. Software tells the hardware what to do and how to accomplish a task. Ex- Whatsapp, Web browsers, Word etc. 3. Data- Unprocessed raw facts and gures, like numbers, Alphabets, text on paper etc, are known as data. 4. Information- When data is processed, organised, structured or presented in a context so as to be useful, it is called information. 5. Instruction-It is a command given to the computer in the computer language by the user. 6. Program- It is a set of instructions given to a computer in order to perform some task. fi Generatons of Computer Gener Period Main Electronic components Main Computers ations Electric Valve EDSAC, EDVAC, I 1940-52 Vaccum Tube UNIVAC IBM-700,IBM-1401,IBM II 1952-64 Transistor 1620,CDC-1604,CDC-3600, ATLAS, ICL-1901 IBM-360, IBM-370, III 1964-71 Integrated Circuit NCR-395,CDC-1700, ICL-2903 Largely Integrated Circuit & IV 1971- Present APPLE Processor V Present To Advanced processor, AI, Optical Beyond bre, fi Quick Facts • Siddhratha was the rst computer developed in India. • Alan turing is known as the father of the modern computer. • John Von Neumann was introduced rst architecture of computer in the year 1948. • Transistors were invented by Bell Laboratory. • In 1958, Jack St. Clair Kilby and Robert Noyce invented the rst Integrated Circuit (IC). • In latest generations computers, the instructions are executed parallel as well as sequential. fi fi fi Classification Of Computer Mainly, Computers are classi ed in three categories. 1. Based on Size 2. Based on Work 3. Based on Purpose fi 1. Based on Size B. Minicomputer C. Mainframe D. Supercomputer Computer A. Microcomputer 2. Based on Work B. Digital Computer C. Hybrid Computer A. Analog Computer 3. Based on Purpose B. Special Purpose Computer A. General purpose computer 1. Based on Size A. Microcomputer- These types of computers are least powerful, yet most widely used and are also called portable computers.Micro computer consist of three basic categories of physical equipment, i.e. system unit, input/output unit and memory unit. Types of micro computer: a. Desktop computer or personal computer(PC)- These are small, relatively economical computers. These are based on the micro processor technology(IC). b. Laptop - These computers are also known as ultra book or notebook. These are portable and lightweighted. They include rechargeable battery, so these can work anywhere. c. Handheld or Palmtop - These are the smallest and are designed to t into the palm. So these are also known as palmtop. They are practical for certain functions such as phonebooks and calendars. They use the pen for input instead of keyword. Ex- PDA(Personal digital assistant) fi d. Tablet computer - They have ket features of the notebook computer, but these can accept input from a pen instead of the keyword or mouse. e. Workstation computer -These are computers dedicated to a user or group of users engaged in business or professional work. It includes one or more high resolutions display and a faster processor than a PC. 1. Based on Size B. Minicomputer - These are smaller in size, faster and cost lower than mainframe computers. Initially, the minicomputers were designed to carry out some speci c task, engineering, computer aided design(CAD). But now they are being used as central computer which are known as servers. Minicomputers are IBM-17, DEC, PDP-11, HP-9000, etc. fi 1. Based on Size C. Mainframe Computer - These types of computers having large internal memory storage and comprehensive range of software. Mainframe computers serves as a backbone for the entire business world. It is considered as the heart of a network computers or terminals that allow a large number of people to work at the same time. Mainframe computers are IBM-370, IBM -S/390, UNIVAC-1110, etc . 1. Based on Size D. Supercomputer - These are the fastest and most expensive machines. They have high processing speed compared to other computers. Supercomputers are the most powerful, large in size and memory compared to all the computers. The speed of super computers are measured in FLOPS( Floating Point Operations Per Second). Supercomputers are used for highly calculations, intensive tasks, such as weather forecasting, nuclear research, military agencies and scienti c research laboratories. fi CRAY-1 was the world’s rst supercomputer introduced by Seymour R CRAY in 1976. PARAM was the rst supercomputer developed in India. PARAM ISHAN- is the latest machine in the series of PARAM made by C-DAC and IIT Guwahati on 20th September, 2016. fi fi 2. Based on Work A. Analog Computer - These computers carry out arithmetic and logical operations by manipulating and processing of data. Ex- Speedometers, seismograph, etc. Analog computers can perform several mathematical operations simultaneously. It uses continuous variables For mathematical operation and utilises mechanical or electrical energy. 2. Based on Work B. Digital Computer - They do work by calculating the binary digits. A digital computer, not only performs mathematical calculations, but also combines the bytes to produce desired graphics, sounds. Ex- Desktop(PC) 2. Based on Work C. Hybrid Computer - These are the combination of analog and digital computers. Machines used in hospitals like ECG(Electrocardiography) and DIALYSIS are the commonly used hybrid computers. 3. Based on Purpose A. General purpose computer - General purpose computer are those computers, which are used to solve variety of problems by changing the program or instructions. Ex- To make database, calculations, accounting etc. 3. Based on Purpose B. Special purpose computer - Those computers which are used to solve a single and dedicated types of problem. Ex- Automatic aircraft landing, multimedia computer , ATM, Washing machine etc. Another Computers Quantum Computer - was rst introduced by Richard Feynman. It uses quantum phenomena. It is fastest computer imitating brain working. Nano Computer - is a general term used to describe a computer smaller than micro- computer, usually about the size of credit card. Ex- Raspberry Pi. Pratyush- Indian made supercomputer, which is fourth fastest(India’s fastest) supercomputer in the world dedicated for weather and climate change. fi Applications Of Computer 1. Banking- Computers are used in bank for electronic money transfer, making deposits, Withdrawal ,bank sheet, etc. 2. Education- Computer is very e ective tool in education, which can be used for teaching and learning, result processing, student data processing, notes preparation,Practical learning etc. ff Applications Of Computer 3. Entertainment- Di erent types of entertainment elds such as multimedia, lm making with animation, graphics, audio and visual design are done with the help of computer. 4. O ces- Computers are used for preparing reports, editing, coding, accounting, etc. ffi fi ff fi Applications Of Computer 5. Advertisement- Computers are used in the di erent elds of advertisement such as business advertisement, lm advertisement, education advertisement, etc. 6. Business- Computers are used in business for accounting, keeping all record up to date, Employee data, Pro t& Loss chart, etc. fi ff fi fi Quick Note Arti cial Intelligence( AI )- is an area of computer science that emphasises the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. Some of the activities computers with AI are designed for include: speech recognition, learning, planning, problem solving, etc. fi Quick Note Robotics- is the branch of engineering and science that deals with design, construction, operation and use of robots as well as computer systems for their control, sensory feedback and information processing. Next Chapter Computer Architecture SUBSCRIBE TO OUR CHANNEL CAREER TIPS, Soft Skills, Job opportunities, Exam preparation and College reviews.