May 2022 Issue 04 9 FREE DOE PRODUCTION HISTORY CARD TEMPLATE 15 AGRI COURSE COMPETITION WINNERS 4 Gene hacked Mosquitoes 7 Malnutrition in Africa 13 Build your own Recycled greenhouse Contents 4 3 Editors Note 4 Gene Hacked Mosquitos 5 Irvine’s Botswana 6 Decadence of livestock 5 7 Malnutrition in Africa 8 Influence of the Moon 6 9 Free Doe Production Card 10 Plants in Desert Climates 8 12 Donkeys as Guard Animals 13 Recycled Greenhouse 14 Agricultural Courses 15 Competition Winners 16 Home Automation 17 Magazine Art Cover Contest 18 Brain Twisters 19 A paperless Office 20 Magazine Special Offer 9 10 “Together we can share knowledge, and feed our Nation” Issue 4 – May 2022 EDITORS NOTE Jerileigh du Preez Temo Thuo Farmers Directory Founder (+267) 754 84 559 email@example.com Dear Readers, It’s time to bring into being a new future, feeding the world, caring for the earth. My heart is very passionate about our planet, animals and inspiring others who In this edition of the Temo Thuo Farmers do good, to excel. Magazine, we will be shining a light on using recycled bottles for horticulture, Our well-being solely depends on this Malnutrition in Africa , and announcing planet which gives food and water to all the winners of our Agricultural course living things, so it is our responsibility to giveaways through a competition. take care of it. There are also a tricky riddles for great I believe that a clean environment is minds to try and solve. essential for healthy living, and enhancing our relationship with nature. I certainly hope this issue highlights some agricultural news, and inspiring It is our duty to protect our earth, because young farmers for our future. caring for our earth means maintaining the existence of living beings and our future We are in search of creative solutions as generations. well as inspiration for readers to set goals, and become the new era of I trust that every reader shall thoroughly entrepreneurs. enjoy our fourth issue of this magazine under the Temo Thuo Farmers Directory. Jerileigh du Preez “Feeding our nation together” 3 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 GENE HACKED MOSQUITOES The so called “Friendly technology” works by using a proprietary system the company developed to hold the eggs of non-biting male mosquitoes that are genetically modified to be self-limiting. When they are placed in a small box of water, the capsule releases the males, which then disperse to mate with wild-type females. Because the males contain a self-limiting gene, the offspring they produce do not live to maturity, thus naturally suppressing the population. While Mosquitoes can seem pointless and purely irritating to us humans, mosquitoes actually do play a substantial role in the ecosystem. Mosquitoes form an important source of biomass in the food chain—serving as food for fish as larvae, birds, bats and frogs as adult flies—and some species are important pollinators. Male mosquitoes also eat SOIL IS DYING nectar and, in the process, pollinate all manner of plants. Bill Gates’ involvement complicates Mosquitoes help filter waste, which aids plant life, the already much-criticized initiative. and also purge decaying insect carcasses by eating them. Mosquitoes make nutrients such as nitrogen This experiment is said to be an that plants feed on to survive. Both male and female extraordinary way to control disease, mosquitoes depend on nectar for energy, so potentially thousands of lives per without mosquitoes, thousands of plant species year. would lose a group of pollinators. However, many critics say it could The Uganda project is still in its infancy. Scientists potentially fail, backfire, or even open plan a study with a limited release of mosquitoes in up the doors to many more troubling 2026, and a larger one in 2030. applications of the technology. The study is being criticized by environmentalists The idea that one of the world’s who want it banned. wealthiest people can help push through gene-editing experiments Frank Muramuzi of the National Association of that are unleashed on the open Professional Environmentalists claims the program ecosystem is, to say the least, a very hasn't been properly discussed and he's urging touchy subject. scientists not to proceed. "They shouldn't tamper with biodiversity," says Researchers all around the world are Muramuzi. looking at ways to genetically alter mosquitos to reduce their What are your thoughts on this? Please share your opinion populations. In 2019, hundreds were with us by commenting on this editions’ Facebook post. released in Florida as part of a study. 4 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 DECENDENCE OF LIVESTOCK Most researchers thought In the process of completing The Southern African the first domesticated cattle this history, they found that indigenous goat population is in Africa arrived from the ancient domesticated African comprised of a mixture of Near East, perhaps as early cattle originated in the large (e.g., Nguni, Tswana, as 7800 years ago. 'Fertile Crescent,' a region Matebele) and smaller East that covered modern day African (e.g., Landim, In the 1980s, a few Iraq, Jordan, Syria and Israel. Mashona, Malawian) archaeologists began to argue that inhabitants of Recent reports indicate that The most recent genetic north-eastern Africa already the first sheep may have analysis confirms the had domesticated cattle arrived in South Africa archaeological evidence independently some 10,000 several centuries earlier than that the wild bezoar ibex of years ago. previously thought. the Zagros Mountains is the likely original ancestor of African cattle genomes were Bones identified as probably all domestic goats quite similar to those of domesticated sheep, which today. Apparently, goats from cattle first domesticated in were excavated from the the southwest region of the the Middle East about Blydefontein shelter in the Fertile Crescent migrated to 10,000 years ago, the upper Karoo, have been north-eastern Africa through researchers discovered, dated to 2700 years ago. the Isthmus of Suez 6000– concluding that those cattle 7000 years ago, then, they were either brought to Africa rapidly spread west and when farmers migrated The Karakul may be the south, reaching the Sahara south, or traded, before oldest breed of domesticated and Ethiopia 5000 years ago interbreeding with African sheep. Archaeological and sub-Saharan regions wild cattle, aurochs. evidence indicates the about 2000 years ago. existence of the Persian The genetic history of 134 lambskin as early as 1400 cattle breeds from around B.C. and carvings of a distinct the world has been Karakul type have been found completed by a group of on ancient Babylonian researchers. temples. 5 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 MULNUTRITION IN AFRICA What is the malnutrition rate in Africa? Six million children are affected by life-threatening severe acute malnutrition in West and Central Africa. One in five people — 21% of the population — were elderly with ailing health. The facing hunger in Africa in 2020. 282 million people are organization takes an integrated, undernourished in Africa. That's 46 million more sustainable and people driven people compared with 2019. approach to empower people through proper nutrition. major causes of malnutrition in Sub-Saharan Africa include poverty, rising cost of living, and globalisation, Feed a Child Botswana’s mission is “to which have led to overdependence on staples such as uplift the community through creation grains and tubers at the expense of nutrient-rich foods of necessary resources to help them including fruits, vegetables, meat, fish, eggs and dairy. make progress in every area that will contribute to an improved standard of That’s why (in the short term) donating to life.” The organization’s vision is “to existing organizations that fight Africa’s hunger on a see a community where hindered local level is so important. These organizations help development (physical, mental and people who are hungry right now. social) and mortality of children due to malnutrition does not exist.” Though Botswana is not technically a poor nation, substantial clusters of poverty remain in its rural areas. Please support them by donations and In some rural areas, the poverty rate is as high as 46 spreading the awareness of percent and unemployment for the country is at 20 malnutrition within Botswana, so we percent. could become a better country by helping the children of our future, and The negative effects of poverty, such as low human those who are in need. capital, low investment, low productivity and poor health, retard economic growth. These characteristics PUTTING ACTION INTO if not reversed draw economies to low economic growth and deep impoverishment. Economic growth is YOUR WILLINGNESS TO HELP necessary, but not sufficient to achieve poverty C: (+267) 72 304 855 reduction. E: firstname.lastname@example.org FB: @Feedachildbots Feed A Child Botswana is a non-governmental organization founded in August 2012. The organization was formed to address basic nutritional needs of the community focusing on the government’s poverty eradication programs, specifically orphans and vulnerable children and the 6 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 INFLUENCE OF THE MOON What is the effect of moonlight on plants? The movement of plant leaves may be partially governed by the gravitational pull of the moon, just like ocean tides. Some plants' leaves rise and fall during the day-night cycle, mostly in reaction to light in their environment. What is the effect of moonlight on plants? The amount of moonlight at different times also influences the growth of plants. As the moonlight increases (new moon and second quarter), this stimulates leaf growth. After the full moon, the moonlight decreases, putting energy into the plant The moon's gravity pulls at the roots. At this time, the above-ground leaf growth Earth, causing predictable rises slows down. and falls in sea levels known as tides. The new moon is a fantastic time for planting because moisture levels are high, and moonlight is To a much smaller extent, tides beginning to increase with each day. This helps seeds also occur in lakes, the germinate, and it promotes healthy, balanced growth atmosphere and within Earth's through the leaves and roots of plants. crust. High tides refer to water bulging up from Earth's surface, Why is the moon important to farmers? and low tides when water levels drop. Since the moon-rise of the Harvest Moon follows shortly after sunset, there is period of time with an Studies has shown that a abundance of moonlight shining bright at the start of humans heart rate and blood the evening. This extra light acts as an extension of pressure were both lower during daylight, allowing farmers and their crews to full and new moons. Plus, their continue harvesting their summer crops well into the heart rates returned to normal night. levels more quickly during full and new moons. In this study, What do animals use the moon for? researchers concluded that humans were more physically throughout the animal world, the presence or efficient during full and new absence of moonlight, and the predictable changes in moons. its brightness across the lunar cycle, can shape a range of important activities. Among them However, I often wonder if the are reproduction, foraging and communication. moon prefers coffee or gravi-tea? 7 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 Get your FREE printable doe production history card! Available to download from our website or our Facebook page 8 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 PLANTS IN DESERT CLIMATES The amount needed of each of these is based on what types of non-drought tolerant desert plants you will want to be growing. Vegetables need quite a lot, whereas fruits and annual flowers need a medium amount and deciduous shrubs, herbs, and perennials require even less nutrients. Since manure has a high amount of soluble salt, it is not recommended due to the higher amounts already present in desert irrigation. Choose an amendment that does not particularly include manure. As arid soils also tend to be very alkaline, it may be vital to lower the pH of your soil to facilitate the growth of healthy plants in the desert. This can be accomplished by the addition of sulphur. CAN YOU GROW Warm season vegetables that are most optimal for growing EDIBLE PLANTS in desert climates may include: IN A DESERT? Beans, Cucumber, Eggplant, Melon, Pepper, Pumpkin, Absolutely. Despite the extreme Squash, Corn, Sweet potato and Tomato. temperatures and minimal rainfall, there are numerous If you’re in a desert climate, you may fall into the habit of edible plants that can be watering your garden constantly, so they never get thirsty. coaxed into fruition in a desert While this seems like a good way to stave off thirst, it may climate. actually cause more harm than good. There are a number of factors Sure, you need to water seedlings and tiny sprouts to consider before growing constantly until their root systems are secured. You should plants in a desert climate. water established plants, however, less frequently but more thoroughly. Primarily, one will want to be aware of the nutrient levels in Signs of under watering include dry soil, yellow leaves, slow your soil. Although a good growth and brown dry lower leaves. quality organic/compost will usually meet your soil’s needs, Allow your plants to develop some heat tolerance by not the best way to determine over-watering them. levels suitable for desert Signs of over watering include wet soil, brown leaves, yellow vegetables is to have the soil falling leaves, new growth falling off, floppy plants and slimy tested. However, there are or foul-smelling roots (root rot). generally three primary nutrient requirements to be aware of. Inconsistent watering causes seeds and seedlings to dry out and die, and it stresses established plants which invites 1. Nitrogen pests and diseases. 2. Phosphorus 3. Potassium “Life on the farm is a school of patience and dedication” 9 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 PREDATOR SAFE LIVESTOCK USING DONKEYS specially trained dogs, llamas Not all donkeys make good A number of livestock and donkeys. Donkeys are livestock guard animals, as owners have discovered gaining in popularity due to there are significant that they can be very their relatively low cost, behavioural differences effective in deterring minor maintenance between individuals. Some predators from requirements, longevity and donkeys can be overly approaching. The most their compatibility with aggressive with the sheep. suitable donkeys are other predator control This aggressiveness can usually jennies (females). methods. Donkeys also offer range from chasing sheep, the additional advantage in nipping at ears or wool, Farmers have struggled for that they can be fed in much preventing access to feed or many years with the loss the same manner as sheep. water, to the extreme of of livestock on their farms hurting or even killing lambs due to predators and have In many instances, poor or sheep. been known to use both management practices and lethal and non-lethal unrealistic expectations (too A donkey may be able to methods to control these many sheep, scattered sheep guard up to 200 ewes if the predators on their or pastures) are as much or terrain is flat and the sheep properties. more to blame for many are grazing in one pasture. failures as any shortcoming Livestock guard animals of the donkey(s). Watch out for over live with the flock, protective behaviour from protecting the sheep from Ideally, the jenny (female your donkey, which must be predation, without donkey) and her foal should removed during a high risk harming or interfering be raised with the sheep, to period of predation, with the flock. Guard increase the likelihood of the particularly when lambing animals currently being donkeys bonding with the on pasture, and during used with sheep include flock. mating season. 10 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 Scavengers, like bald eagles, Most farmers use poison are not immune to to eradicate predators, rodenticide exposure as a but this could have a result of secondary poisoning. serious ripple effect. The side effects to secondary www.cheetahconservationbot The direct effects of toxins poisoning can be reduced swana.org typically reduce organism reproductive success, birth abundance by increasing defects, developmental issues, mortality or reducing persistent internal bleeding, Cape Vultures Environmental fecundity. Such direct and death. The number of Association is the only effects, therefore, alter wildlife deaths associated with organization in Southeast both bottom-up food secondary poisoning is not District that carries out availability and top-down well known. Mass mortalities monitoring of the Cape Vulture predatory ability. of predators and scavengers at Mannyelanong Game have been documented. Reserve. Results of which are It’s not just predators that However, for some species, forwarded to BirdLife we should be concerned the loss of even a few Botswana, which is the only about. The compounds individuals can impact the organization in the country can also cycle through entire population. Please help carrying out research and food webs when us reduce secondary monitoring of the birds. scavenging animals—from poisoning to conserve wildlife! crustaceans and insects to mammals and birds— Cheetah Conservation either directly consume Botswana (CCB) aims to rodenticides or consume preserve the nation’s cheetah poisoned corpses. While population through scientific not all rodenticides are research, outreach with toxic enough to create farmers, community these ripple effects in food development and conservatio webs, second-generation n education, working with anticoagulants are. rural communities to promote Unfortunately, they are coexistence with Botswana’s also the most commonly rich diversity of used chemicals to control carnivore species. www.birdlifebotswana.org.bw rat populations. Conserving Wildlife 11 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 HOW THERETOARE BUILD A ALWAYS BETTER GREENHOUSE TECHNIQUES USING PLASTIC BOTTLES “Being someone frustrated with the plastic epidemic we have on our hands, I have decided to do something about it! I upcycled 1000 plastic bottles to create a greenhouse!” For those of you with the time and patience penetrate into the structure. This is a huge to collect enough empty plastic bottles, here time-saver for greenhouse growers. Also, is a step-by-step guide for building a plastic- rainwater is always better for your plants than bottle greenhouse. tap water. It saves yet more plastic waste from the Making this type of greenhouse is relatively landfill. It goes without saying that if cheap and easy, but it is also a bit of an everyone saved those PET bottles for undertaking in terms of labour and time, constructions like greenhouses, there would especially if you've never done anything like it be less plastic cluttering up landfill sites. before. It does make a great project for a It is cheap and easy to repair. You can simply large group, community or a school project, replace any plastic bottle that has broken or but you can do this on your own, too. been damaged. All the bottles are hooked onto either wire or a cane or sticks, so all you It's cheap to construct. You will need need to do is unhook the line, slide out the approximately 1400 empty 2-litre (40-oz) bottle, and replace it with a newer one. plastic bottles to build a greenhouse that is 8' It is sturdy and can withstand strong x 6'. If you don't have enough bottles saved winds. Plastic bottles can't get blown away up, you can collect them from neighbours, when they are pinned into place. The strength friends, hotels, bars, and restaurants in your of your structure will depend entirely on how area. well the lines of bottles are anchored. It holds heat and keeps seedlings warm. The temperature inside this greenhouse will be Check out this channel for steps on building about 10°C higher than the weather outside. your own recycled plastic bottled green That is a huge difference, and it should house! certainly lengthen the growing season for many plants, no matter what climate you live in. It is self-watering. Because there are gaps between the bottles, heavy rain can certainly @ Jacks Patch “Helping you to be the change you wish to see in the world!” 12 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 Temo Thuo farmers Directory is in collaboration with Agricolleges AVAILABLE COURSES international which is a modern, cloud- INTRODUCTORY COURSES; based online learning institution. ⇝ Introduction to Agribusiness. ⇝ Introduction to Animal production. We provide students with affordable, ⇝ Introduction to Plant Production. accessible and industry-relevant education and training in the fields of FUNDAMENTALS COURSES; agriculture and related agri-industries. ⇝ Fundamentals of Agribusiness. ⇝ Fundamentals of Avocado production. ACI’s unique offering provides access to ⇝ Fundamentals of Good Agricultural Practices. information in an online, blended and ⇝ Fundamentals of Macadamia Production. shared learning environment, available ⇝ Fundamentals of Maize production. from anywhere at any time. ACI offers various short courses in Agribusiness, CITRUS COURSES; Plant and Animal Production, as well ⇝ Citrus Harvesting. accredited one-year NQF Level 4 ⇝ Citrus Packaging. National Certificate courses. ⇝ Citrus Planting Management. ⇝ Citrus Propagation, Plant Structures & Functions. ⇝ Citrus Pruning. ⇝ Integrated Pest management for Citrus. NATIONAL CERTIFICATES; Contact us today for more information ⇝ National Certificate in general Agriculture. email@example.com ⇝ National Certificate in Plant Production. (+267) 76 25 22 44 ⇝ National Certificate in Animal Production. 13 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 CONGRATULATIONS TO THE WINNERS OF OUR AGRI COURSE COMPETITION Never has agriculture been so important as these times, for our National Food Security. This is why we collaborated with OUR WINNERS Agricolleges International in hosting a A big congratulations to our winners who have competition and gave away 3 agricultural entered into our social media competition! courses in Botswana, via a social media competition. The winner of Agri Business goes to Catherine Agricolleges International provides online Seeta who is a wife and a mother of 2 children. courses to assist farmers of all ages in leading people to the highest success rates The winner of Plant Production goes to in the farming industry, because knowledge Seloilwe Keotshepile Seloilwe who is an is power. environmentalist from Maun. We would like to express our sincere The winner of Animal Production goes to Aimie gratitude to Agricolleges International for Mogwatse who has a passion for cattle and sponsoring these courses, and adding value envisions exporting quality beef. to a few lives within Botswana. 14 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 16 18 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 17 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 BRAIN - TWISTER These long riddles will wrack your brain 1. A wealthy family lived in a big circular house. They had a house keeper, a butler, and a gardener. The parents were going to a party, so they tucked the younger kids into bed and kissed them goodnight and said goodbye, and kissed the older kids goodnight. When the parents came home, all the kids were gone—they had been kidnapped. The authorities ask the butler, housekeeper, and gardener what they were doing at the time of the kidnapping. The butler says he was organizing the library, the housekeeper says she was dusting the corners, and the gardener says he was watering the plants. Who’s lying and actually kidnapped the kids? 2. You walk into a room and see a bed. On the bed, there are two dogs, five cats, a giraffe, six cows, and a goose. There are also three doves flying above the bed. How many legs are on the floor? 3. In a one-story house at the corner of the road, the bedrooms were yellow, the kitchen was orange, the living room was red, the garage was blue, the entry hall was green and the sitting room was purple. What colour were the stairs? 4. I am a five-letter word and people eat me. If you remove the first letter I become an energy form. If you remove the first two letters, I am needed to live. Scramble the last three letters and I am a drink. What word am I? 5. There’s a girl who has a large family. She has an equal amount of brothers and sisters, but each brother only has half as many brothers and sisters. What’s the correct amount of brothers and sisters? ANSWERS 1. Answer: The Housekeeper —she said she was dusting the corners, but the family lives in a circular house, so there are no corners. 2. Answer: Six—the bed’s four legs, plus your two legs. 3. Answer: There’s no colour because there are no stairs—it’s a one-story house. 4. Answer: Wheat. 5. Answer: Four sisters and three brothers. DO YOU HAVE ANY TRICKY FARMING RIDDLES, ANY QUESTIONS REGARDING FARMING FOR OUR NEXT Q&A PAGE, OR ARE YOU A CREATOR OF COMIC STRIPS AND WOULD LIKE TO BE FEATURED IN OUR MAGAZINE? Give us a call, send us an email, or a WhatsApp for more info. 18 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 Cell: (+267) 754 84 559 Email: royalgroup.Botswana@gmail.com Web: www.paramount-creations.tech 19 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Issue 4 – May 2022 20 TEMO THUO FARMERS MAGAZINE Join our WhatsApp group to receive the latest Farmers Magazine!