بسم اللہ الرح ٰمن الرحیم Unit 25 When I do / When I’ve done 25.1 Complete the sentences using the verbs in brackets. All the sentences are about the future. Use will/won't or the present simple (I see/ he plays/ it is etc). 1 When you are (are) in London again, come and see us 2 I want to see Sophie before (she goes) out 3 Call me when (you know) what time you're going to get here 4 I'm going out. Will (you will be) here when (I get) back? Will you be 5 I think everything will be fine, but if there are any problems, (I will call) you, OK? 6 We must do something soon before (it is) too late. 7 Anna looks very different now. When (you see) her again, (you won't recognize) her. you won't recognise 8 Steve has applied for the job, but he isn't really qualified for it. (I will be) surprised if (he gets) it. 9 I'm going to be away for a few days. If (you need) to contact me while (l am) away, here's my mobile number. 10 I don't want to go without you. I'll wait for you until (you are) ready. 25.2 Make one sentence from two 2) I’ll find somewhere to live. Then I’ll give you my address. I will give you my address when I finding I've found somewhere to live. 3) I’ll do the shopping. Then I’ll come straight back home. I’ll come after I doing the sopping. I'll come straight back home after I've done the shopping. 4) Its going to get dark. Let’s go home before that. We‘ll go home before it’s going to get dark. Let's go home before it gets dark. 5) She must apologies to me first. I won’t speak to her until then. I won’t speak to her until she must apologise to me first she has apologised. 25.3 Read the situations and complete the sentences 1 A friend of yours is going on holiday. You want to know what she is going to do. You ask: What are you going to do when you are on holiday? 2 A friend of yours is visiting you. She has to go soon but maybe there’s time for some more coffee. you go? You ask: Would you like some more coffee before you will go? 3 You want to sell your car. Jim is interested in buying it, but he hasn’t decided yet. You ask: Can you let me know as soon as you are interested? you decide? 4 Your friends are going to New York soon. You want to know when they’re going to stay. You ask: Where are you going to stay when you‘ll going to New York? you go to Hong Kong? 5 The traffic is very bad in your town, but they are building a new road at the moment. You say: I think things will be better when they will build a new road? build the new road? 25.4 Put in when or if 1 Don’t worry if I’m late tonight 2 Tom might phone while I’m out this evening if he does, can you take a message? 3 I’m going to Rome next week. When I’m there, I hope to visit a friend of mine. 4 I think Jill will get the job. I’ll be very surprised if she doesn’t get it. 5 I’m going shopping if you want anything, I can get it for you. 6 I’m going away for a few days. I’ll phone you when I get back. 7 I want you to come to the party, but if you don’t want to come, that’s all right. 8 We can eat at home or, if you prefer, we can go to a restaurant. Unit 26 Can, could and (be) able to 26.1 Complete the sentences using CAN or (BE) ABLE TO. Use CAN if possible; otherwi se use (BE) ABLE TO. 1. Gary has travelled a lot. He can speak five languages. 2. I haven't been able to sleep very well recently. 3. Nicole can drive, but she hasn't got a car. 4. I used to be able to stand on my head, but I can't do it now. 5. I can't understand Martin. I've never been able to understand him. 6. I can't see you on Friday, but I can meet you on Saturday morning. 7. Ask Catherine about your problem. She might be able to help you. 26.3 Complete the sentences with CAN/CAN'T/COULD/COULDN'T + following. 1. I'm afraid I can't come to your party next week. 2. When Tim was 16, he could run 100 meters in 11 seconds. 3. 'Are you in a hurry?' 'No, I've got plenty of time. I can wait.' 4. I was feeling sick yesterday. I couldn't eat anything. 5. Can you speak a little louder? I can't hear you very well. 6. 'You look tired'. 'Yes, I couldn't sleep last night.' 26.4 Complete the answers to the questions with WERE/WAS ABLE TO.... 1. A: Did everybody escape from the fire? B: Yes, although the fire spread quickly, everybody was able to escape. 2. A: Did you finish your work this afternoon? B: Yes, there was nobody to disturb me, so I was able to finish. was able to finish it. 3. A: Did you have difficulty finding our house? B: Not really. Your directions were good and we were able to find. were able to find it. 4. A: Did the thief get away? B: Yes. No-one realised what was happening and the thief was able to get away. 26.5 Complete the sentences using COULD, COULDN'T or MANAGED TO. 1. My grandfather travelled a lot. He could speak five languages. 2. I looked everywhere for the book, but I couldn't find it. 3. They didn't want to come with us at first, but we managed to persuade them. 4. Laura had hurt her leg and she couldn't walk very well. 5. Sue wasn't at home when I phoned, but I managed to contact her at her office. 6. O looked very carefully and I could see somebody in the distance. 7.I wanted to buy some tomatoes. The fist shop I went to didn't have any, but I managed to get some in the next shop. 8. My grandmother loved music. She could play the piano very well. 9. A girl fell into the river, but fortunately we managed to rescue her. 10. I had forgotten to bring my camera, so I couldn't take any photographs Unit 27 could (do) and could have (done) 27.1 Answer the questions with a suggestion. Use COULD. 1. Where shall we go for our holidays? We could go to Scotland. 2. What shall we have for dinner tonight? We could have fish. 3. When shall I phone Angela? You could phone Angela now. 4. What shall I give Ann for her birthday? You could give her a book. 5. Where shall we hang this picture? We could hang this picture in the kitchen. 27.2 In some of these sentences, you need COULD (not CAN). Change the sente nces where necessary. 1. The story can be true, but I don't think it is. - could be true 2. It's a nice day. We can go for a walk. - could go (CAN is also possible) 3. I'm so angry with him. I can kill him. - could kill 4. If you're hungry, we can have dinner now. - OK 5. It's so nice here. I can stay here all day, but unfortunately I have to go. - could stay 6. A: Where's my bag, have you seen it? B: No, but it can be in the car.-could be 7. Peter is a keen musician. He plays the flute and he can also play the piano.-OK 8. A: I need to borrow a camera. B: You can borrow mine.-OK 9. Be careful climbing that tree you can fall.-could fall. 27.3 Complete the sentences. Use COULD or COULD HAVE + a suitable verb. 1. A: What shall we do this evening? B: I don't mind. We could go to the cinema. 2. A: I had a very boring evening at home yesterday. B: Why did you stay at home? You could have been out with us. could have come 3. A: There's an interesting job advertised in the paper. You could work for it. could apply B: What sort of job? Show me the advertisement. 4. A: How was your exam? Was it difficult? B: It wasn't so bad. It could have been worse. 5. A: I got very wet walking home in the rain last night. B: Why did you walk? You could have taken a taxi. 6. A: Where shall we meet tomorrow? B: Well, I could come to your house if you like. 27.4 Complete the sentences. Use COULDN'T or COULDN'T HAVE + these verbs (in the correct form): 1. I couldn't live in a big city. I'd hate it. 2. We had a really good holiday. It couldn't have been better. 3. I couldn't wear that hat. I'd look silly and people would laugh at me. 4. We managed to find the restaurant you recommended, but we couldn't have found it without the map that you drew for us. 5. Paul has to get up at 4 o'clock every morning. I didn't know how he does it. I couldn't get up at that time every day. 6. The staff at the hotel were really nice when we stayed there last summer. They couldn't have been more helpful. 7. A: I tried to phone you last week. We had a party and I wanted to invite you. B: That was nice of you, but I couldn't have come anyway. I was away all last week. Unit 28 Must and can’t 28.1 Put in "must" or "can't" 1. You have been travelling all day. You must be tired. 2. That restaurant must be very good. It is always full of people. 3. That restaurant can't be very good. It is always empty. 4. I am sure I gave you the key. You must have it. Have you looked in your bag? 5. You are going on holiday next week. You must be looking forward to it. 6. It rained every day during their holiday, so they can't have had a very nice time. 7. Congratulations on passing your exam. You must be very pleased. 8. You got here very quickly. You must have walked very fast. 9. Bill and Sue always travel business class, so they can't be short of money. 28.3Read the situation and use the words in brackets to write sentences with " must" and "can't have" 2. Sara hasn't contacted me. She can't have got my message. 3. The jacket you bought is very good quality. It must be very expensive. It must have been very expensive. 4. I haven't seen the people next door for ages. They must have gone away. 5. I can't find my umbrella. I must have left it in the restaurant last night. 6. Dave, who is usually very friendly, walked past me without speaking. He can't have seen me. 7. There was a man standing outside the cafe. He must have waited for somebody. He must have been waiting for somebody. 8. Liz did the opposite of what I asked her to do. She can't have understood what I said. 9. I was woken up in the night by the noise next door. The neighbors must have had a party. My neighbours must have been having a party. 10. The light was red, but the car didn't stop. The driver can't have seen the red light Unit 29 May and might 29.1 Write these sentences in a different way using MIGHT 1. Perhaps Helen is in her office. - She might be in her office. 2. Perhaps Helen is busy. - She might be busy. 3. Perhaps Helen is working. - She might be working. 4. Perhaps she wants to be alone. - She might want to be alone. 5. Perhaps she was ill yesterday. - She might have been ill yesterday. 6. Perhaps she went home early. - She might have gone home early. 7. Perhaps she had to go home early. - She might have had to go home early. 8. Perhaps she was working yesterday. - She might have been working yesterday. In sentences 9-11 use MIGHT NOT 9. Perhaps she doesn't want to see me. - She might not want to see me. 10. Perhaps she isn't working today. - She might not been working today. 11. Perhaps she wasn't feeling well yesterday. - She might not have been feeling well yesterday. 29.2 Complete each sentence with a verb in the correct form. 1. 'Where is Ben?' - 'I'm not sure. He might be having lunch.' 2. 'Who is that man with Emily?' 'I'm not sure. It might be her brother.' 3. A: Who was the man we saw with Anna yesterday? B: I'm not sure. It may have been her brother. 4. A: What are those people doing by the side of the road? B: I don't know. They might be waiting for a bus. 5. Is Sarah here? ‘I can’t see her. She may not been here yet. have arrived 29.3Read the situation and make sentence from the words in brackets. Use MIG HT. 1. I can't find Jeff anywhere. I wonder where he is. a. He might have gone shopping. b. He might be playing tennis. 2. I'm looking for Sophie. Do you know where she is? a. She might be watching TV in her room. b. She might have gone out. 3. I can't find my umbrella. Have you seen it? a. It might be in the car. b. You might have left in the restaurant last night. You might have left it in the restaurant. 4. Why didn't Dave answer the doorbell? I'm sure he was at home at the time. a. He might have gone to bed early. b. He might not have heard the doorbell. c. He might have been in the shower. 29.4Complete the sentences using MIGHT NOT HAVE...or COULDN'T HAVE.... 1. A: Do you think Sarah got the message me sent her? B: No, she would have contacted us. She couldn't have got it. 2. A: I was surprised Kate wasn't at the meeting. Perhaps she didn't know about it. B: That's possible. She might not have known about it. 3. A: I wonder why they never replied to our letter. Do you think they received it? B: Maybe not. They might not have received it. 4. A: I wonder how the fire started. Was it an accident? B: No, the police say it couldn't have been an accident. 5. A: Mike says he needs to see you. He tired to find you yesterday. B: Well, he couldn't have found me very hard. I was in my office all day. couldn't have tried 6. A: The man you spoke to - are you sure he was American? B: No, I'm not sure. He might not have been American. Unit 42 (is done /was done) 42.1. Complete the sentences using one of these verbs in the correct form, present or past: 1. Many accidents are caused by dangerous driving. 2. Cheese is made from milk. 3. The roof of the building was held in a storm a few days ago. was damaged 4. You are invited to the wedding. Why didn't you go? 5. A cinema is a place where films are surrounded. are shown 6. In the United States, elections for president are shown every four years. are held 7. Originally the book was written in Spanish, and a few years ago it is translated was translated into English. 8. Although we were driving quite fast, we were taken by a lot of other cars. were overtaken 9. You can't see the house from the road. It was damaged by trees. is surrounded 42.2. Write questions using the passive. Some are present and some are past. 1. Ask about glass. How is glass made? when 2. Ask about television. (How/invent?) How was television invented? When was television invented? 3. Ask about mountains. (How/form?) How are mountains formed? antibiotics 4. Ask about Pluto (the planet). (When/discover?) When was Pluto discovered? 5. Ask about silver.(what/use for?) What is silver used for? When were antibiotics discovered? 42.3. Put the verb into the correct form, present simple or past simple, active or passive. 1. it’s a big factory. Five hundred people are employed there. 2. Did somebody clean this room yesterday? 3. Water covers most of the earth's surface. 4. How much of the earth's surface is covered by water? 5. The park gates are locked at 6.30 p.m. every evening. 6. The letter was posted a week ago and it arrived yesterday. was sent sank 7. The boat hit a rock and sunk quickly. Fortunately everybody were rescued. was rescued 8. Robert's parents died when he was very young. He and his sister are brought by their grandparents. were brought up 9. I was born in London, but I was grown up in Canada. grew up 10. While I was on holiday, my camera was stolen from hotel room. 11. While I was on holiday, my camera disappeared from my hotel room. 12. Why did Sue resign from her job? Didn't she enjoy it? 13. Why was Bill sacked from his job? What did he do wrong? was Ben fired 14. The company is not independent. It is owned by a much larger company. 15. I saw an accident last night. Somebody called an ambulance but nobody was injured, so the ambulance wasn't needed. 16. Where were these photographs taken? In London? Did you take them, or somebody else? 17. Sometimes it's quite noisy living here, but it's not a problem for me - I am not bothered by it. 42.4. Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using somebody, they, people etc., write a passive sentence. 1. Somebody cleans the room every day. The room is cleaned every day. 2. They cancelled all flights because of fog. All flights were cancelled because of fog. 3. People don't use this road much. This road isn't used much by people. 4. Somebody accused me of stealing money. I was accused of stealing money. 5. How do people learn languages? How are languages learnt by people? 6. Somebody warned us not to go out alone. We were warned not to go out alone. Unit 43 (be done / been done / being done) 43.1. What do these words mean? Use it can ... or it can’t.... Use a dictionary if necessary. If something is ... 1. Washable, it can be washed. 2. Unbreakable, it can't be broken. 3. Edible, it can be eaten. 4. Unusable, it can't be used. 5. Invisible, it can't be seen. 6. Portable, it can be taken. t can be carried 43.2. Complete these sentences with the following verbs (in the correct form). Sometimes you need have (might have, should have etc.). 1. The situation is serious. Something must be done before it's too late. 2. I haven't received the letter. It might have been sent to the wrong address. 3. A decision will not be made until the next meeting. 4. Do you think that money should have been spent on education? be spent 5. This road is in very bad condition. It should have been repaired a long time ago. 6. The injured man couldn't walk and had to have been carried. be carried 7. it’s not certain how the fire started, but it might have been caused by an electrical fault. 8. I told the hotel receptionist I wanted to have been woken up at 6.30 the next morning. be woken up 9. If you hadn't pushed the policeman, you wouldn't have been arrested. 43.3. Rewrite these sentences. Instead of using SOMEBODY or THEY etc., write a passive sentence. 1. Somebody has cleaned the room. - The room has been cleaned. 2. Somebody is using the computer at the moment. - The computer is being used at the moment. 3. I didn't realize that somebody was recording our conversation. - I didn't realize that our conversation was being recording. 4. When we got to the stadium, we found that they had cancelled the game. - When we got to the stadium, we found that the game had been cancelled. 5. They are building a new ring road round the city. A new ring road is being built round the city. 6. They have built a new hospital near the airport. - A new hospital has been built near the airport. 43.4. Make sentences from the words in brackets. Sometimes the verb is active, sometimes passive. 1. There's somebody behind us. I think we're being followed. 2. This room looks different. Have you painted the walls? 3. My car has disappeared. It has been stolen! 4. My umbrella has disappeared. Somebody has taken it. 5. Sam gets a higher salary now. He has been promoted. 6. Ann can't use her office at this week. It is being redecorated. 7. The photocopier broke down yesterday, but now it's OK. It works again. It has been repaired. It is working again. 8. When I went into the room, I saw that the table and chairs were not in the same place. The furniture had been moved. 9. A neighbor of mine disappeared six months ago. He hasn't been seen since then. 10. I wonder how Jane is these days. I haven't seen her for ages. 11. A friend of mine was mugged on his way home a few nights ago. Have you ever been mugged?